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Hydrogen Energy Research
Published 2024-05-22

Reshoring renewables manufacturing

Hydrogen Energy Research
Scientific & Applied Engineering References

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20 Dec 2023, The Economist, "Unlike actual gold, hydrogen is spectacularly useful."

H2 HER 1.1. 20 May 2024, ACS, Boosting the Electrolysis of Monosaccharide-Based Streams in an Anion-Exchange Membrane Cell, "Here the optimized electrocatalyst was scaled-up to an AEM electrolyzer, where the cell operating potential in the AEM cell was optimized. Moreover, a new procedure for anode regeneration alternative to open-circuit potential (OCP) was studied, achieving a higher stability and hence, a practically constant hydrogen production."
H2 Bio 2.1. 13 May 2024, ACS, Conjugated Polymer/Recombinant Escherichia coli Biohybrid Systems for Photobiocatalytic Hydrogen Production, "This strategy significantly increases the proton reduction activity of the biohybrid system. The resulting biohybrid materials exhibited functional synergy between the two components and enhanced biohydrogen production by only using simulated solar light as the energy input."
FC PEM 3.1. 08 May 2024, ScienceDirect, Transition Metal Oxide Catalytic Abilities for Fuel Cell Applications: Density Functional Theory (DFT) Studies, "This work evaluates the catalytic capabilities of the crystallographic surfaces of these oxides using DFT via CASTEP & DMol3, as well as the Adsorption Locator module. Surfaces include CoWO4, Co3WO8, & TiWO4, have different levels of stability and reactivity when it comes to absorbing H2 & O2."


H2 HER 1.1. 20 May 2024, ACS, Boosting the Electrolysis of Monosaccharide-Based Streams in an Anion-Exchange Membrane Cell, "Here the optimized electrocatalyst was scaled-up to an AEM electrolyzer, where the cell operating potential in the AEM cell was optimized. Moreover, a new procedure for anode regeneration alternative to open-circuit potential (OCP) was studied, achieving a higher stability and hence, a practically constant hydrogen production."
H2 HER 1.2. 18 May 2024, Nature, Atomically dispersed Iridium on Mo2C as an efficient and stable alkaline hydrogen oxidation reaction catalyst, "Here an atomically dispersed Ir on Mo2C NPs supported on carbon as a highly active & stable HOR catalyst in alkaline electrolyte. Mo2C NPs are used as the hosts for Ir atoms. The Mo2C shows Pt-like electronic structure, enabling the guest Ir to have a unique binding property."
H2 HER 1.3. 06 May 2024, SciOpen, Atomically precise Ru-O-Ru clusters for enhanced water dissociation in alkaline H2 evolution, "Herein, employing the carrier-anchored strategy, Ru-O-Ru atomic clusters were prepared and displayed excellent activity and durability in the HER. Specifically, the Ru-O-Ru atomic clusters exhibited only 86 mV overpotential at 100 mA·cm-2 and superior membrane-electrode-assembly activity than commercial Ru/C catalyst."
H2 HER 1.4. 03 May 2024, MDPI, H2 Formation from Water with Various Reducing Metals Catalyzed by In Situ-Generated Nickel Nanoparticles, "Here we focus on the evolution of H2 from the reaction between H20 and different metals in a neutral environment, catalyzed by in situ-generated nanoparticles of nickel. One of the key advantages of our approach is the production of a catalyst in situ, eliminating the need for prior catalyst preparation and recycling."
H2 HER 1.5. 02 May 2024, ScienceDiirect, In situ exploration of oxygen electrocatalysis using core-shell nanostructure-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, "This review summarizes recent research in our group focusing on the in situ investigation of the electrocatalytic reaction OER/ORR by enhanced Raman spectroscopy utilizing core-shell nanostructures. The development and enhancement mechanism of SERS is briefly reviewed."
H2 HER 1.6. 30 Apr 2024, ACS, Platinum Nanoparticles Bonded with Carbon Nanotubes for High-Performance Ampere-Level All-Water Splitting, "Here we designed Pt nanoparticles bonded in carbon nanotubes with Pt–C bonds to ultralow overpotential H2O splitting ability in alkaline solution. During the synthesis process, carbon nanotubes are employed as substrate & surface oxygen-containing groups of carbon nanotubes are modified by strong acid treatment,"
H2 HER 1.7. 29 Apr 2024, Nature, Allotrope-dependent activity-stability relationships of molybdenum sulfide HER electrocatalysts, "Our results corroborate that the lamellar-like c-MoS2 is stable under HER potentials, but its durability is severely hampered under intermittent operation by Mo moieties: under non-HER potentials being unstable. Activation of the [Mo3S13]2− cluster-based catalysts under HER operating potentials is due to selective S loss."
H2 HER 1.8. 28 Apr 2024, ScienceDiirect, Zero-Gap Bipolar Membrane Water Electrolyzers: Principles, Challenges and Practical Insights, "Here, the strategies and methods employed to address these challenges and to enhance the performance and efficiency of bipolar membrane water electrolysis are discussed. The scope is on zero-gap bipolar membrane/interface water electrolyzers, as the most relevant bipolar membrane electrolyzer architecture."
H2 HER 1.9. 26 Apr 2024, ACS, Separators and Membranes for Advanced Alkaline Water Electrolysis, "Here we focus not only on porous diaphragms and ISM designed for traditional AWE, but will also discuss advances in the field of AEM. The literature discussed covers roughly the last 10 years of development, e.g., literature since 2011 for work on imidazolium-based ionenes, and work published since 2015 for AEMs prepared by polyhydroxyalkylation."
H2 HER 1.10. 26 Apr 2024, Nature, Enhancing hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride hydrolysis and the role of a Co/CuFe2O4 nanocatalyst in a continuous flow system, "In this study, a series of cobalt-based spinel ferrites catalysts, including nickel, cobalt, zinc, and copper ferrites, were synthesized using the sol–gel auto-combustion method followed by a chemical reduction process, and were employed for accelerating hydrogen generation."
H2 HER 1.11. 25 Apr 2024, ACS, Precious Metal Free Hydrogen Evolution Catalyst Design and Application, "In this review we provide a comprehensive review of precious metal free (sometimes called nonprecious metal, or nonplatinum group) catalyst development for the HER under both acidic and alkaline electrolyte for low-temperature electrolysis. The review is split into three sections, firstly we describe current commercial electrolyzers."
H2 HER 1.12. 23 Apr 2024, SciOpen, Highly efficient pH-universal hydrogen evolution reaction catalyzed by rapidly reconstructed bimetallic cobalt-molybdenum alloy cuboids arrays, "Here we report the rational design and synthesis of an outstanding nanoporous hybrid electrocatalyst consisting of intermetallic cobalt-molybdenum alloy particles anchoring on MoO2 cuboid arrays, which demands very low overpotentials of 72, 123 and 134 mV."
H2 HER 1.13. 23 Apr 2024, ACS, Cathode Catalyst Layer Design in PEM Water Electrolysis toward Reduced Pt Loading and Hydrogen Crossover, "Here we present a detailed study aiming to concurrently decrease the loading of Pt and minimize the rate of hydrogen crossover through the analysis of cathode catalyst layers featuring a variety of structural parameter combinations. A 4-fold reduction of Pt was achieved from 0.1 to 0.025 mgPt/cm2."
H2 HER 1.14. 21 Apr 2024, Nature, Graphsene as a novel porous two-dimensional carbon material for enhanced oxygen reduction electrocatalysis, "We introduce a novel two-dimensional carbon-based material, termed Graphsene (GrS), through theoretical study. Comprising tetra-, penta-, and dodeca-carbon rings, GrS’s cohesive energy calculations demonstrate its superior structural stability over existing graphene allotropes, including graphyne and graphdiyne families."
H2 HER 1.15. 19 Apr 2024, ACS, Mechanistic Insights into Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution by an Exceptionally Stable Cobalt Complex, "Co(aPPy) is one of the most stable & active molecular first-row transition-metal catalysts for proton reduction reported & understanding the origin of its high performance via mechanistic studies could aid in developing better catalysts & the catalytic mechanism of Co(aPPy) was electrochemically probed in organic solvents & water."
H2 HER 1.16. 17 Apr 2024, ACS, Applying Nuclear Forward Scattering as In Situ and Operando Tool for the Characterization of FeN4 Moieties in the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction, "In this work, we introduce NFS for in situ and operando measurements during electrocatalytic reactions. The technique enables faster data acquisition and better discrimination of certain iron sites in comparison to Mössbauer spectroscopy."
H2 HER 1.17. 13 Apr 2024, ACS, Highly Uniform Nanodiamond-Graphene Composites Microspheres for Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution, "The present work demonstrates the performance of the recently reported nanodiamond/graphene composite microsphere ND-GCSs as a catalyst for HER. These spheres were produced via the microwave-irradiation approach. A modified process was adopted to improve the particle size uniformity and yield."
H2 HER 1.18. 10 Apr 2024, SciOpen, Dual active sites engineering of electrocatalysts for alkaline hydrogen evolution, "This article reviews recent progress in developing alkaline HER catalysts with high-efficiency dual active sites via strategies of heterogeneous interfaces constructing and heteroatoms doping or alloying."
H2 HER 1.19. 08 Apr 2024, ScienceDirect, Understanding Platinum-based H2 Adsorption/ Desorption Kinetics during Catalytic Hydrogenation or H2 Storage-related Reactions, "The focus of this study was to synthesise the platinum catalyst with different NP sizes on a SiO2 support and to mathematically describe the adsorption and desorption of H2 on platinum."
H2 HER 1.20. 02 Apr 2024, Nature, Janus electronic state of supported iridium nanoclusters for sustainable alkaline water electrolysis, "In-situ observations indicate the local acidic environment and the dynamic Ir→NiPS3 hydrogen spillover on the catalytic surface for alkaline HER, and the Ir/NiPS3 structure is found with the anti-reconstruction merit in OER."

H2 Bio 2.1. 13 May 2024, ACS, Conjugated Polymer/Recombinant Escherichia coli Biohybrid Systems for Photobiocatalytic Hydrogen Production, "This strategy significantly increases the proton reduction activity of the biohybrid system. The resulting biohybrid materials exhibited functional synergy between the two components and enhanced biohydrogen production by only using simulated solar light as the energy input."
H2 Plasma 2.2. 10 May 2024, ACS, Boosting Photocatalytic Metal-Free Hydrogen Production of Viologen-Based Covalent Organic Frameworks, "Through studies involving the deposition of COF-MB-TPCBP on the TiO2 surface, it was observed that this value further increased dramatically. Overall, this study introduces an innovative concept and an effective approach in the design and synthesis of stable and efficient photocatalysts based on COFs."
H2 Plasma 2.3. 07 May 2024, ScienceDiirect, Enhancing catalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles through acid treatment in Eosin-Y sensitized photohydrogen evolution reaction system, "In this paper, we elucidate an easy-to-apply method to augment catalyst activity by modulating the electron density on the catalytic surface through acid treatment. We experimented with various laboratory acids to identify the optimal one for performance enhancement."
H2 Plasma 2.4. 03 May 2024, ACS, Noble Metal-Free Light-Driven Hydrogen Evolution Catalysis in Polyampholytic Hydrogel Networks, "We herein aim for a heterogeneous system capable of noble metal-free visible light-driven HER catalysis using polyampholyte hydrogels based on PDha. We immobilized two molecular building blocks, an organic PS (derived from PMI) and a molybdenum CAT ([Mo3S13]2–), via attractive electrostatic interactions."
H2 Plasma 2.5. 02 May 2024, Nature, Boosting photocatalytic water splitting of TiO2 using metal (Ru, Co, or Ni) co-catalysts for hydrogen generation, "This study sheds light on the influence of type, loading percentage, and deposition method of metals (e.g., Ru, Co, and Ni) as co-catalysts on the photocatalytic performance of TiO2 for water splitting. Three metal types were investigated including ruthenium (Ru), nickel (Ni), and cobalt (Co)."
H2 Plasma 2.6. 27 Apr 2024, ACS, Zirconium Oxynitride Thin Films for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting, "Herein, we use reactive sputter deposition to grow zirconium oxynitride thin films with variable oxygen-to-nitrogen ratios. This plasma-based nonequilibrium deposition approach allows the synthesis of oxynitride films at significantly milder processing conditions and with more precise control over composition than traditional high-temperature ammonolysis treatments."
H2 Plasma 2.7. 25 Apr 2024, ScienceDirect, Recent advances on small molecule doped carbon nitride photocatalysts: Application in environmental water remediation and clean energy production, "With sunlight semiconductor photocatalysts drive photocatalytic reactions to generate active species ie. photogenerated carriers & free radicals & migrate the surface of semiconductor to photodegrade pollutants and photocatalytic water splitting to generate H2."
H2 Plasma 2.8. 19 Apr 2024, ACS, Advancing Silicon-Based Photoelectrodes toward Practical Artificial Photosynthesis, "Here the key challenges and future perspectives toward practical artificial synthesis are suggested. Our collective work outlines strategies for efficient and stable Si-based photoelectrodes. These general methods may be applicable to other semiconductor photoelectrodes for artificial synthesis."
H2 Plasma 2.9. 18 Apr 2024, ScienceDirect, Sustainable H2 Production: Solar-Powered Biomass Conversion Explored through (Photo)Electrochemical Advancements, "Here we present a thorough analysis of the utilization of diverse biomass feedstocks, encompassing carbohydrates, lignin, triglycerides (fats and oils), proteins, & terpenes. offers an assessment of the transformative potential by integrating electrocatalysis & photocatalysis for H₂ generation."
H2 Plasma 2.10. 16 Apr 2024, ACS, Plasma Catalysis for H2 Production: A Bright Future for Decarbonization, "This review article highlights the use of nonthermal plasma technology for hydrogen production, although thermal plasmas are discussed when appropriate. We acknowledge the significant advances in electrochemical and biomass-derived approaches for clean H2 production and point the reader to the highlighted review articles in those areas."
H2 Bio 2.11. 14 Apr 2024, ScienceDirect, The role of graphene Oxide’s aromatic rings in activated carbon made from banana leaves (ACBL) and Fe3O4 in H2 production, "The largest H2 production results were obtained at ACBL 200 mesh, which was 15.5 ml. ACBL from abundant biomass has magnetic & electrical potential within its aromatic ring. As the aromatic ring interacts with the magnetic field of Fe3O4, the electromagnetic field of the solution is strengthened."
H2 Solar 2.12. 13 Apr 2024, Nature, Embedding biocatalysts in a redox polymer enhances the performance of dye-sensitized photocathodes in bias-free photoelectrochemical water splitting, "This photocathode is capable of driving overall water splitting in combination with a bismuth vanadate photoanode, showing distinguished solar-to-hydrogen efficiency among all reported water-splitting devices based on dye-sensitized photocathodes."
H2 Solar 2.13. 12 Apr 2024, ScienceDirect, Metal phosphates for the design of advanced heterogeneous photocatalysts, "Metal phosphates more complex structural features require dedicated synthetic efforts to effectively explore their real possibilities eg. BiPO4 is a UV-active semiconductor with ample applicability in photocatalysis including hydrogen production."
H2 Solar 2.14. 11 Apr 2024, Enapter, Solar-battery-H2 microgrid, "Chiang Mai University, Thailand showcases its green building powered by 100% renewables with H2 as energy storage. As an integral part of the university campus, the building serves as a hands-on learning center for students of the faculty and university. The green building enables students and researchers to self-develop & test energy management logic to control the systems with an IoT approach."
H2 Solar 2.15. 10 Apr 2024, ScienceDirect, Performance evaluation and multi-objective optimization of a solar-thermal-assisted energy system: Supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle & SOEC/fuel cells, "With heat supply via air, the SOEC subsystem can operate at 800 ℃ to reach high energy efficiency and reduce electric demand, which replacing conventional waste heat."
H2 Solar 2.16. 06 Apr 2024, Nature, A silicon photoanode protected with TiO2/stainless steel bilayer stack for solar seawater splitting, "This paper describes the design and fabrication of a bilayer stack composed of stainless steel and titanium dioxide (TiO2), serving as the catalytic and protective layer for Si photoanode, which achieves PEC seawater splitting performance."
H2 Solar 2.17. 05 Apr 2024, ScienceDirect, H2 production from wastewater: A comprehensive review of conventional and solar powered technologies, "This review pays special attention to solar driven H2 production from wastewater, by highlighting the potential of several technologies for simultaneous water treatment and green H2 production from wastewater."
H2 Solar 2.18. 26 Mar 2024, ScienceDirect, Facile construction of MoS2 decorated CdS hybrid heterojunction with enhanced hydrogen generation performance, "2D MoS2 used as a cocatalyst to provide the abundant active sites & lower overpotential for H2 generation reaction ie. an insight to fabricate the 2D/2D heterojunction photocatalysts for HER."
H2 Plasma 2.19. 25 Mar 2024, PHYS.ORG, Researchers harness the sun to produce hydrogen gas from water, "The researchers also used a special technique called dynamic light scattering, also known as photon correlation spectroscopy, to measure the size of the catalysts by analyzing the fluctuations in the intensity of scattered light. This non-invasive technique provided valuable information about the size, shape and distribution of the catalysts."
H2 Bio 2.20. 25 Mar 2024, MDPI, Hydrogen Production via Electrolysis of Wastewater, "Wastewater purification via anodic reaction, which produces free radicals instead of OER for pollutant degradation, is systematically presented. Then, the coupled system that allows for pollutant refining into high-value-added products combined with hydrogen production is displayed."

FC PEM 3.1. 08 May 2024, ScienceDirect, Transition Metal Oxide Catalytic Abilities for Fuel Cell Applications: Density Functional Theory (DFT) Studies, "This work evaluates the catalytic capabilities of the crystallographic surfaces of these oxides using DFT via CASTEP & DMol3, as well as the Adsorption Locator module. Surfaces include CoWO4, Co3WO8, & TiWO4, have different levels of stability and reactivity when it comes to absorbing H2 & O2."
FC PEM 3.2. 06 May 2024, ScienceDirect, Development of a dynamic mathematical model of PEM electrolyser for integration into large-scale power systems, "Here, a developed model of the PEM electrolyser is presented. This article distinguishes itself from prior literature models by incorporating detailed mathematical modules not only for the anode, cathode, membrane and voltage but also for the thermal compartment."
FC PEM 3.3. 18 Apr 2024, ScienceDirect, High-temperature degradation of tetragonal zirconia in solid oxide fuel and electrolysis cells: a critical challenge for long-term durability and a solution, "In this work, we present our recent finding that 3YSZ is, in fact, susceptible to high-temperature degradation (HTD) after operation over 8,500-10,000 h. The degradation leads to substantial embrittlement of the cells."
FC PEM 3.4. 17 Apr 2024, MDPI, On the Scalability of a Membrane Unit for Ultrapure Hydrogen Separation, "In this work, the results obtained with the MeSMeR facility have been compared with previous experimental campaigns conducted on single-tube units, and the scalability of the permeation results has been proven. Moreover, post-test simulations have been performed based on single-tube finite element modeling, proving the scalability of the numerical outcomes."
FC PEM 3.5. 12 Apr 2024, ScienceDirect, Recent progress in understanding the dispersion stability of catalyst ink for proton exchange membrane fuel cell and water electrolyzer, "The novelty of this review is to provide a guide to understand the importance of catalyst ink dispersion stability for manufacturing MEAs at scale-up level. This is addressed through targeting fundamental interaction behavior and physical properties of the ink materials."
FC PEM 3.6. 06 Apr 2024, ScienceDirect, Revealing the critical role of low voltage excursions in enhancing PEM fuel cell catalyst degradation by automotive H2/air potential cycling experiments, "Here we study the impact of short-stops on catalyst degradation and their critical role. Then we clarify which is the voltage profile characteristic responsible for promotion of aging, a parametric analysis to investigate both short-stop properties & operational history,"
FC PEM 3.7. 05 Apr 2024, Nature, Advanced efficient energy management strategy based on state machine control for multi-sources PV-PEMFC-batteries system, "Here we proposed an energy management system for MSRS depending on the objective of the stabilization of the DC bus’s stability & the need for the load demand. The primary source of system energy is the photovoltaic array & backup power source is comprised of a secondary battery fuel cell."
FC PEM 3.8. 26 Mar 2024, ACS, Impact of Current Collectors with Different Electrocatalytic Activities on H2 Production in Microbial Electrolysis Cells with Flowable Cathodes, "Superior HER activities & H2 production rates with NF are due to the relatively higher electrocatalytic activities of NF itself and the larger specific surface area (128 m2/m2-projected area)."
FC PEM 3.9. 22 Mar 2024, ACS, Bipolar Membrane Seawater Splitting for Hydrogen Production: A Review, "Bipolar membranes create two distinct pH environments and selectively facilitate water dissociation by allowing the passage of protons and hydroxide ions, while acting as a barrier to cations and anions."
FC PEM 3.10. 21 Mar 2024, ScienceDirect, Performance of rime-ice algorithm for estimating the PEM fuel cell parameters, "Here the performance of a recent metaheuristics method called the RIME method is examined for solving the PEMFC issue plus and estimation of six parameters of PEMFC is performed using the RIME technique."
FC PEM 3.11. 14 Mar 2024, Nature, Ion solvation kinetics in bipolar membranes and at electrolyte–metal interfaces, "Here results indicate that kinetics of OH− (de)solvation are slower than for H+ (de)solvation and that there exists a universal amount of capacitive charge needed to induce electric fields that impact the interfacial entropy of water."
FC PEM 3.12. 11 Mar 2024, ScienceDirect, Phase engineering of a donor-doped air electrode for reversible protonic ceramic electrochemical cells, "Here, a donor doping of Hf into the B-site of a cobalt-based double perovskite with a nominal formula of PrBa0.8Ca0.2Co1.9Hf0.1O5+δ, which is reconfigured to a double perovskite PrBa0.8-xCa0.2Co1.9Hf0.1-xO5+δ backbone."
FC PEM 3.13. 04 Mar 2024, SciOpen, Pt single atoms coupled with Ru nanoclusters enable robust hydrogen oxidation for high-performance anion exchange membrane fuel cells, "Here we develop a single atom-cluster multiscale structure with isolated Pt single atoms anchored on Ru nanoclusters supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanosheets (Pt1-Ru/NC)."
FC PEM 3.14. 02 Mar 2024, ScienceDirect, Sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification in predictive modeling of proton-exchange membrane electrolytic cells, "Here we implement a fast 1D python solver, which solves a system of six nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs) in PEMECs."
FC PEM 3.15. 27 Feb 2024, ACS, Advanced Patterned Membranes for Efficient Alkaline Membrane Electrolyzers, "The prepared membrane shows a 39% improvement in water permeability and a 23% enhancement in the electrochemical surface area compared with a flat membrane with the same catalyst loading and unprecedented current density of 17.5 A cm–2@2.0 V."
FC PEM 3.16. 19 Feb 2024, ScienceDirect, Poly(p-phenylene)-based membranes with cerium for chemically durable polymer electrolyte fuel cell membranes, "Results demonstrate that the proton conductivity of the pristine hydrocarbon membranes is superior to that of PFSA membranes, and the hydrogen crossover is significantly lower."
FC PEM 3.17. 18 Feb 2024, Nature, Dynamic accelerated stress test and coupled on-line analysis program to elucidate aging processes in proton exchange membrane fuel cells, "This program was able to age a commercial PEMFC to end-of-life in 1000 h, while providing an accurate picture of the aging processes involved."
PEM 3.18. 12 Feb 2024, ACS, Effects of Inhomogeneous Gas Diffusion Layer Properties on the Transportation Phenomenon and Performances of PEMFC, "Study revealed that excessive assembly stress can lead to carbon fiber breakage, affecting its transport performance & spatial arrangement of pores with a diameter below 0.175 nm was largely unaffected."
SOFC 3.19. 03 Feb 2024, Nature, Enhanced oxygen reduction reaction on caffeine-modified platinum single-crystal electrodes, "Caffeine is used as a capping agent and a structure directing agent for the preparation of well dispersed Pd–Au nanochain networks with unique structures, and enhances the ORR activity."
PEMFC 3.20. 02 Feb 2024, ACS, Metal–Support Interaction between Titanium Oxynitride & Pt Nanoparticles Enables Efficient Low-Pt-Loaded High-Performance Electrodes at Relevant OER Current Densities, "Here we report on a synergistic relationship between Pt nanoparticles and a titanium oxynitride support in the context of oxygen reduction reaction catalysis."

H2 Storage 4.1. 21 May 2024, ScienceDiirect, Evaluating reservoir suitability for large-scale hydrogen storage: A preliminary assessment considering reservoir properties, "The objective of this paper is to present a method for the initial evaluation of the suitability of H2 storage in a depleted gas reservoir. The screening criteria are based on reservoir geometry, petrophysics, tectonics, and formation fluids."
H2 Storage 4.2. 10 May 2024, MDPI, Unstable Metal Hydrides for Possible On-Board H2 Storage, "This review summarizes current developments of metal hydrides, including intermetallic compounds & complex hydrides, & offers some guidelines for future developments. Since lab H2 uptake measurements are limited to 200 bar, a possible threshold for defining unstable hydrides could be a value of their equilibrium pressure of peq > 200 bar for T below 100 °C."
H2 Storage 4.3. 29 Apr 2024, CSIRO, Making hydrogen while the sun shines, "Researchers show abundant renewable energy can be used to make H2, to be stored and then converted back into electricity when it’s needed. Organisations in Australia and around the world are exploring whether underground caverns are a safe & cost-effective medium term H2 storage method. We are researching the feasibility of storing H2 in depleted gas fields in Victoria."
H2 Storage 4.4. 08 Apr 2024, Nature, Microbial induced wettability alteration with implications for Underground Hydrogen Storage, "In this study, the captive-bubble cell approach is used to investigate the impact of microbial activity on wettability for the hydrogen/brine/rock system. Experiments are carried out using “living brine” containing sulphate reducing microbes,"
H2 Storage 4.5. 22 Mar 2024, NPROXX, Pioneering High-Pressure Hydrogen Storage Solutions, "Safety is a major priority in the hydrogen industry and NPROXX has set the standard for safe high-pressure hydrogen storage. NPROXX Type 4 tanks are designed with the utmost care, adhering to rigorous international safety standards, including UNECER134, EN17339 ISO11515 and many more."
H2 Storage 4.6. 19 Mar 2024, ScienceDirect, Comparative study of three H2 geological storages in deep aquifers simulated in high-pressure reactors, "Here, 3 x experiments were carried out to simulate aquifers used for underground geological storage. Being sampled from monitoring wells close to the gas‒liquid interface, formation waters were greatly exposed to stored CH4."
H2 Storage 4.7. 16 Mar 2024, ScienceDirect, Investigation of pre-cooling strategies for heavy-duty hydrogen refuelling, "The aim of this work is to investigate the impact of adaptable cold-fill on the hydrogen temperature trend during the refuelling process as well as to identify optimization potentials of the cooling process regarding cooling energy demand."
H2 Storage 4.8. 24 Feb 2024, Energy Vault, H-VAULT™ H2 energy storage for multi-day resilience, "H-VAULT™ is a family of hybrid energy storage system configurations designed to ensure the reliability of critical community infrastructure. The H-VAULT™ product combines the fast-response functionality of batteries with the longer-duration capabilities of H2-fuel cell combinations."
H2 Storage 4.9. 17 Feb 2024, MDPI, An Exploration of Safety Measures in H2 Refueling Stations: Delving into H2 Equipment and Technical Performance, "We explore several aspects including the sophisticated architecture of H2 dispensers, reliable leak-detection systems, emergency shut-off mechanisms, and the implementation of fire-suppression tactics."
H2 Storage 4.10. 06 Feb 2024, Nature, Small-pore hydridic frameworks store densely packed H2, "Here, magnesium borohydride framework that has small pores and a partially negatively charged non-flat interior for hydrogen and nitrogen uptake. H2 and nitrogen occupy distinctly different adsorption sites in the pores, with very different limiting capacities of 2.33 H2 and 0.66 N2 per Mg(BH4)2."
H2 Storage 4.11. 31 Jan 2024, Nature, Experimentally validated design principles of heteroatom-doped-graphene-supported Ca single-atom materials for non-dissociative chemisorption solid-state H2 storage, "Design by first-principles calculations analysis & focused experimental verifications of heteroatom-doped-graphene-supported Ca single-atom carbon nanomaterials."
H2 Storage 4.12. 18 Jan 2024, MDPI, Computational Modeling of High-Speed Flow of Two-Phase Hydrogen through a Tube with Abrupt Expansion, "Here suitable values of the relaxation time parameter are determined by comparing numerical results with test data for high-speed two-phase hydrogen flows in a configuration involving a tube with sudden expansion, which is common in practical systems."
H2 Storage 4.13. 08 Jan 2024, Cygnet Texkimp, National Composites Centre commissions Cygnet Texkimp filament winding machine for new era of hydrogen vessel development, "Composites company Cygnet Texkimp has delivered a 4-axis filament winding machine to NCC to form part of a new state-of-the-art manufacturing and test facility for H2 transportation & storage."
H2 Storage 4.14. 02 Jan 2024, ScienceDirect, A review on the factors of liner collapse in type IV hydrogen storage vessels, "Hydrogen permeation and rapid decompression cause liner collapse in type IV tanks and increased permeability of polymeric liner increases chance of liner collapse. Correlation exists between thermo-mechanical properties of polymers and permeability."
TypeV H2 Storage 4.15. 01 Jan 2024, ScienceDirect, Review on linerless type V cryo-compressed hydrogen storage vessels: Resin toughening and hydrogen-barrier properties control, "Cryo-compressed hydrogen storage has significant advantages such as long dormancy, high safety factor, and rapid filling; thus, it is suitable for the energy supply of heavy-duty vehicles."
TypeIV H2 Storage 4.16. 07 Nov 2023, Forvia, FORVIA's leadership in H2 storage earns new contract in North America, "Type IV tanks are well suited for applications requiring higher pressure & more intensive use eg. truck applications. The polymer liner provides higher durability while providing up to 15% greater driving autonomy 30% lighter & supporting affordability & convenience."
H2 SIM Storage 4.17. 21 Oct 2023, Nature, Simulation and optimization of the impacts of metal-organic frameworks on the hydrogen adsorption using computational fluid dynamics & artificial neural networks, "This study is a step forward in improving the design of H2 tanks, which will facilitate hydrogen storage at low pressures close to ambient temperatures."
H2 Storage 4.18. 20 Oct 2023, MDPI, Thermodynamics of Reversible H2 Storage: Are Methoxy-Substituted Biphenyls Better through O2 Functionality?, "Here, a series of methoxy-substituted biphenyls & structural parent compounds were studied & absolute vapour pressures were measured using transpiration method & enthalpies of vaporisation/sublimation determined."
H2 Car Storage 4.19. 19 Oct 2023, MDPI, Hydrogen Storage as a Key Energy Vector for Car Transportation: A Tutorial Review, "This study serves as a guide for anyone wanting to undertake such a technology and to equip the reader with an advanced knowledge on H2 storage in H2 cars to stimulate further researches & yet more innovative applications for this highly interesting field."
H2 IET Storage 4.20. 16 Oct 2023, IET, Adaptively optimal energy management for integrated hydrogen energy systems, "H2 storage system consists of electrolysers, FCs, and H2 tanks and power is consumed by electrolysers to produce H2 stored in tanks. The long-distance transmission of H2 is a challenging task for the trans-region balance of clean energy."

H2 FCEV 5.1. 04 May 2024, Nature, Effect of hydrogen embrittlement on mechanical characteristics of DLC-coating for hydrogen valves of FCEVs, "In FCEVs the hydrogen valve requires particularly high durability due to being the component that operates most frequently during the operation of FCEVs. In particular, the plunger, which is one of the parts of the hydrogen valve, is made of steel that is worn by friction with the core due to the reciprocating motion. "
Stadler FLIRT H2 5.2. 25 Mar 2024, Stadler, STADLER’S H2-POWERED TRAIN FLIRT H2 ACHIEVES A NEW GUINNESS WORLD RECORDS TITLE, "The FLIRT H2 has been entered into Guinness World Records database for the longest distance of 2,803km achieved by a pilot H2 fuel cell electric multiple unit passenger train without refueling or recharging. This achievement underlines Stadler's innovative strength & technological leadership in sustainable rail transport."
China H2 Rail 5.3. 22 Mar 2024, CRRC, China's first homegrown hydrogen-powered urban train completes test, "This urban train has a built-in H2 power system with maximum cruising range over 1,000 km. Test data also shows that the average energy consumption of the train is 5 kWh per km, which is on par with world leading levels."
Stadler FLIRT H2 5.4. 28 Feb 2024, Honda, Honda Presents World Premiere of Production Model of “CR-V e:FCEV” at H2 & FC EXPO Tokyo, "The CR-V FCEV hydrogen fuel from the high-pressure hydrogen tanks circulates through the fuel cell stack to generate the power that drives the motor, creating reliable power for the journey ahead."
Daimler Linde 5.5. 07 Feb 2024, Daimler/Linde, Safe, Fast and Simple: Daimler Truck and Linde Set New Standard for Liquid Hydrogen Refueling Technology, "Daimler Truck and Linde Engineering present a jointly developed refueling technology: Compared to gas H2, subcooled LH2 allows higher storage density, greater range, faster refueling, lower costs & superior energy efficiency."
Nikola 5.6. 07 Feb 2024, Nikola, IMC Unveils Design of its 50 Nikola Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Trucks at Grand Opening of Sustainable Facility, " IMC is responding to the growing demand for sustainable transportation and the deployment of these hydrogen-powered trucks will be utilized in IMC’s operations primarily in Calif., as well as in Ariz. and Nev."
IEEE 5.7. 30 Jan 2024, IEEE, A new traction system with asymmetrical six-phase permanent magnet synchronous motors for hydrogen trains, "The proposed traction system has two three-phase inverters feeding separately the six-phase machine and controlled to achieve optimal power sharing between the FC and the battery."
MIT 5.8. 10 Jan 2024, MIT, The future of motorcycles could be H2 - MIT Electric Vehicle Team builds a unique H2 fuel cell–powered electric motorcycle, "One of the team’s goals for the project is to make available an open-source design and “we want to provide this bike as a platform for researchers and for education"
Alstrom 5.9. 10 Jan 2024, Symbio, StackPack 75 covers a wide range of automotive applications, medium duty trucks and city buses, "StackPack 75 is fully compliant with applicable regulations and the ISO 26262 standard. POWER (net1) - 75 kW; STACK POWER DENSITY - 4,9 kW/liter; DURABILITY - 20,000 hours (Heavy Duty); 7,000 hours (Light Duty); WEIGHT - 80 Kg"
Alstrom 5.10. 06 Jan 2024, Alstom Coradia Stream H, Green traction solutions for regional trains, "Coradia Stream H is a fuel cell-powered regional train that enables clean and sustainable service designed to ensure excellent performance. Fueling trains with hydrogen produced from renewable energies eliminates emissions of greenhouse gases."
China H2 IC 5.11. 14 Dec 2023, ACS, Research and Development of Hydrogen-Fueled Internal Combustion Engines in China, "A review and analysis of developmental research of HICE with optimization control method of combustion process, mechanism & suppression method of abnormal combustion, influence regularity of H2 injection parameters & H2 injection modes on H2–air mixture."
Ca H2 NO 5.12. 12 Dec 2023, Nature, California’s zero-emission vehicle adoption brings air quality benefits yet equity gaps persist, "Here, we quantify ZEV adoption at the census tract level in California from 2015 to 2020 and project it to 2035 when all new passenger vehicles sold are expected to be ZEVs."
Stadler H2 Trains 5.13. 16 Oct 2023, Stadler, MORE HYDROGEN TRAINS FOR THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA, "Stadler design of the battery fuel cell train is changing the US rolling stock industry for alternative propulsion systems, combining Stadler top quality and reliability to drive innovation transforming railways in America."
BMW iX5 5.14. 16 Oct 2023, Nature, Development of a mobile laboratory system in hydrogen fuel cell buses and evaluation of the performance for COVID-19 RT-PCR testing, "In this study, we evaluated the performance of a mobile laboratory system on HFC buses by focusing on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for COVID-19."
Hyundai Bus 5.15. 06 Oct 2023, Hyundai Iveco, Iveco Group and Hyundai Motor Company unveil a new hydrogen city bus at Busworld trade show in Brussels, "This HTWO Fuel cell system-based Hydrogen Hyundai-Iveco bus includes four tanks offering a combined storage of 7.8 kg of H2 and one 69 kWh battery pack by FPT Industrial."
BMW iX5 5.16. 14 Sep 2023, BMW, The BMW iX5 Hydrogen proves its suitability for everyday use even at high temperatures, "Despite harsh below-zero temperatures the development team based in Munich paid particular attention to the functionality of all electrical systems and the constant provision of cooling performance. The result: no vulnerabilities whatsoever."
Toyota H2 Fuel Cell 5.17. 08 Sep 2023, Toyota, It is here! Toyota H2 fuel cell electric Hilux prototype, "H2 is stored in three high-pressure fuel tanks, giving the prototype an expected driving range of >600 km. The hybrid battery, which stores electricity produced on-board by the fuel cell, is positioned in the rear load deck, avoiding loss of cabin space."
First Hydrogen FCEV 5.18. 14 Aug 2023, First Hydrogen, FIRST HYDROGEN’S HYDROGEN-FUEL-CELL POWERED VEHICLE HAS AN UNBEATABLE RANGE, "These FCEV vehicles are being trialled with an initial 16 fleet operators in the United Kingdom. At the same time, the company has launched its bespoke vehicle design phase which will develop its fleet of proprietary zero-emission vehicles."
Pininfarina NamX HUV 5.19. 06 Jul 2023, Pininfarina, NamX - A futuristic SUV with solid performances, designed with style, "Collaboration between NAMX & PININFARINA, the design of the HUV is part of a large-scale industrial and technological project whose ambition is to reconcile human mobility and environmental preservation thanks to green hydrogen."
China H2 Railway 5.20. 19 Jun 2023, Railway Technology, CRRC unveils “world’s most powerful” hydrogen train, "China’s state railway company has unveiled “Ningdong”, the “world’s most powerful” H2-powered locomotive. According to China Railway Rolling Stock Corporation (CRRC), the new engine can run for up to 190 hours and takes two hours to refuel its 270kg capacity of LH2."

Aviation PEM Fuel Cell 6.1. 15 Apr 2024, ScienceDirect, Optimal design of proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems for regional aircraft, "The results show that it is beneficial to optimize these performance criteria simultaneously in a pareto optimization problem. The aircraft’s electrical power demand of 3.12 MW is provided by ten identical 312 kW fuel cell systems that are distributed along the wing."
Aviation Fuel Cell 6.2. 18 Mar 2024, ScienceDirect, Optimal design of a hydrogen-powered fuel cell system for aircraft applications, "The aim of this work is to evaluate the applicability of this technology to an existing regional aircraft in order to assess its electrification, with the aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and achieving sustainability goals."
Airbus Aviation 6.3. 18 Mar 2024, Airbus, HIA Milestone Delivery Report lists critical next steps for UK to be leader in global hydrogen aviation race, "The Hydrogen in Aviation alliance is calling for a comprehensive industrial strategy for aviation to ensure the UK is a global leader in the development of hydrogen aviation."
Plug Power UAS 6.4. 01 Mar 2024, Plug Power, High Specific Energy Means More Time in the Air for a Fuel Cell UAV, "Hydrogen fuel cells for aerospace provide high specific energies (Wh/kg) for longer-duration flights and come with the added benefit of fast fueling, allowing customers to maximize the utilization of these assets and setting several world records for endurance flights through the use of EnergyOr’s innovative and proprietary fuel cell technology."
ZeroAvia 6.5. 28 Feb 2024, ZeroAvia, ZeroAvia Selected to Work with the UK Civil Aviation Authority on Hydrogen Readiness "ZeroAvia is developing hydrogen-electric (fuel cell) engines for aviation, already flying a prototype system in a Dornier 228 testbed under a CAA Permit to Fly and has submitted its application to certify its first 600kW engine, ZA600."
Universal Hydrogen MW Fuel Cell 6.6. 27 Feb 2024, Universal Hydrogen, Universal Hydrogen Successfully Powers Megawatt-Class Fuel Cell Powertrain Using Company’s Proprietary Liquid Hydrogen Module, "The liquid hydrogen module holds fuel to power the iron bird for over three hours at full power, with two such modules sufficient for 500 nautical miles of usable range (on top of reserves) for an ATR72 regional airliner. This demonstration was conducted at the Mojave Air & Space Port."
InterestingEngineering 6.7. 09 Feb 2024, InterestingEngineering, Hydrogen-powered drones get a major boost with new fuel cell membrane "Previous research has attempted to use radical scavengers and hydrocarbon electrolyte membranes to solve the problem but found limited success. The research teams at Incheon and Harvard Universities collaborated to develop a new polymer electrolyte membrane that is resistant to operational fatigue."
Aviation H2 Fuel Cell 6.8. 29 Jan 2024, Modelon, 2024 Innovations in Aircraft Hydrogen Storage, "Hydrogen is well-suited to flight. Hydrogen is light and energy-dense, yielding roughly three times more energy storage per unit mass than jet fuel. More importantly, hydrogen fuel cells are technically free of carbon emissions. These flights become truly carbon-free by sourcing green hydrogen produced entirely through renewable energy (as all the industry leaders plan to do)."
NPS Potion PEM Fuel Cell 6.9. 23 Jan 2024, NPS, NPS POTION Software Helps UAV Break Records During Arctic Test Flight, "Central to the project’s achievements was the development of optimal trajectory planning software emulating the energy-conserving flight patterns of migrating birds navigating atmospheric wind rivers. In the realm of energy-efficient flight, characterized by low airspeeds and altitudes, susceptibility to the adverse effects of strong winds and icing is amplified."
Sirius Aviation 6.10. 14 Jan 2024, Sirius Aviation, SIRIUS AVIATION TO UNVEIL HYDROGEN-POWERED BUSINESS JET, "Sirius Jet is a fully electric, zero-emissions, vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft designed to blend the aerodynamics of a jet with the versatility of airplanes and helicopters, powered by a hydrogen-electric ducted fan propulsion system."
Heven drones 6.11. 27 Nov 2023, HevenDrones, Hydrogen-powered drones could fly longer, farther, "Heven Drones' H2D200 can carry up to 10lbs — twice what a typical electric drone of its size can carry & has a potential range of 317 miles, with up to four hours of flight time. The H2D250 can carry up to 22lbs and has a potential range of 466 miles, with up to eight hours of flight time."
Airbus Condor 6.12. 16 Nov 2023, Airbus, Contrail-chasing Blue Condor makes Airbus’ first full hydrogen-powered flight, "The modified glider at the centre of Airbus UpNext’s hydrogen contrail-studying experiment, Blue Condor, made its first hydrogen-powered flight over Nevada US 8 Nov. The flight was Airbus first ever to use hydrogen as the sole fuel source."
Scramjet nozzles 6.13. 01 Nov 2023, Nature, Application of multi-extruded fuel injectors for mixing enhancement of hydrogen gas at scramjet engine: computational study, "The findings reveal that the use of extruded nozzles and inner air jet can significantly improve fuel mixing and distribution by enhancing the vortices between injectors."
Honeywell Aerospace 6.14. 15 Sep 2023, NREL, Honeywell Aerospace and NREL Partner To Scale Novel Hydrogen Fuel Storage Solution for Drones, "This prototype supports the commercialization of a novel cartridge-based hydrogen fuel storage solution for UAVs. The project, Fuel Additives for Solid Hydrogen (FLASH) Carriers in Electric Aviation, is a new hydrogen carrier technology."
H2FLY Germany LH2 6.15. 07 Sep 2023, H2FLY Germany, H2FLY And Partners Complete World’s First Piloted Flight of Liquid Hydrogen Powered Electric Aircraft, "The aircraft uses LH2 to power a H2-electric fuel cell system that powered the aircraft for the entire flight which lays the foundation for long-range flight with LH2 doubling the range to 1,500km compared to gaseous H2."
Aviation LH2 6.16. 23 Jun 2023, ACS, Liquid Hydrogen: A Mirage or Potent Solution for Aviation’s Climate Woes?, "In this study, we focus our investigation on which fuel supply chains and conversion technologies can lower the WTWa climate impact of commercial aircraft. We do not, however, analyze issues of cost or scalability."
Airbus 6.17. 20 Jun 2023, Airbus, At Airbus, hydrogen power gathers pace, "Airbus is maturing two hydrogen-based propulsion technologies in parallel. Hydrogen combustion and hydrogen fuel cells are at the heart of ZEROe, our low-carbon emission aircraft concept. H2 fuel cells are also under study as a source of non-propulsive energy."
H2FLY Germany 6.18. 22 May 2023, HyliumDRONE FLIES FOR FIVE HOURS WITH HYDROGEN FUEL CELL, "The drone uses a hydrogen fuel cell to provide electricity to run the drone’s motors and other electronic systems. Thanks to the energy density advantage of hydrogen versus lithium batteries, the flight time can be greatly extended compared to conventional battery-only drones."
GKN Germany 6.19. 21 Apr 2023, GKN, Liquid hydrogen-fueled UAS demonstrated, "GKN developed integrated fuel tank design and distribution solutions, including vaporizing and cryogenic conditioning of the liquid hydrogen. Fuel system performance was verified by coupling it with a PEM fuel cell stack, representative of the type that could be installed on a future zero-emission aircraft."
Universal H2 6.20. 17 Mar 2023, Wingcopter/ZAL, Hydrogen power for delivery drones: Wingcopter and ZAL GmbH start joint development, "A solution is being developed that will fit into the existing technical ecosystem of the Wingcopter W198 delivery drone while preserving the characteristic flight capabilities of the Wingcopter."

Honeywell Fuel Cell 7.1. 02 Apr 2024, Honeywell, Honeywell Wins Contract To Develop Hydrogen Fuel Cell Power System For U.S. Army Soldiers "Honeywell’s small fuel cell will be used on the move to charge batteries and power equipment, reducing the number of spare batteries needed by the soldier or squad. Additionally, the system is designed to complement standard electronic equipment a U.S. soldier already uses."
Cellula Robotics XLUUV 7.2. 12 Mar 2024, Cellula Robotics, Metron and Cellula Robotics, USA Sign a Strategic Partnership Agreement to Advance UUV Capabilities for Long Duration Operations in Dynamic Environments "Cellula’s Solus-LR and Solus-XR platforms (the latter with an operational range of at least 5,000 kilometers), will be equipped with Cellula’s cutting-edge hydrogen fuel cell technology."
Kia EV9 7.3. 12 Feb 2024, Janes, World Defence Show 2024: Kia Motors presents hydrogen fuel-cell all-terrain vehicle "The EV9 MIL Concept has a gross weight of 3,250 kg, a length of 5 m, a height and width of 1.9 m, and a ground clearance of 220 m, cruising range 480 km, with the vehicle being able to navigate gradients of 60%, an approach angle of 60°, and a departure angle of 25°."
SkyCorp H2 7.4. 11 Dec 2023, SKYCORP Technologies, e-Drone Zero "The e-Drone Zero is a surveillance-focused H2 drone. As a multirotor configuration, it is nimble, compact, resilient & capable of acting off-grid as necessary. Extended Flight Times – 90-120 min; Refueling 2-5 min; On-board Processing – Support for AI; EO-IR Payload; Comms – Radio/LTE/5G/Satcom."
Airgas H2 7.5. 10 Nov 2023, Airgas, Airgas Awarded the 2024 Military Friendly® Gold Recognition Employer Designation "Airgas, an Air Liquide company, has earned the Gold Level Recognition and been named by VIQTORY to the 2024 Military Friendly® Employers list for the second year in a row, following three consecutive years with Silver Level Designation."
IC Army H2 7.6. 06 Sep 2023, Infinite Composites, INFINITE COMPOSITES SIGNS $1.6MUSD ARMY CONTRACT TO DEVELOP CONFORMABLE FUEL TANKS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE "The DoD has created several initiatives to increase funding to develop new and improved hydrogen technologies for military vehicles including aircraft, ground support, and marine applications."
Saab Sabertooth AUV 7.7. 04 Sep 2023, Naval Technology, Recharge AUVs without a mothership: US trials hydrogen fuel cell "Saab AUV is being equipped with the Subsea Supercharger from Teledyne Energy Systems & the fuel cell uses technology to extend the AUV’s mission duration, and by reducing the requirement to reconnect with a surface vessel it also reduces the risk and the cost of operations."
H2 DHS Rescue Truck 7.8. 17 Aug 2023, US DHS, Feature Article: Using Hydrogen to Power Disaster Relief "The H2Rescue truck was built by Accelera by Cummins under a USACE ERDC-CERL cooperative agreement with funding and design assistance from S&T, the DoE, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, U.S. Army Ground Vehicle Power and Mobility, & USNRL."
H2 GM Defense 7.9. 27 Jun 2023, GM Defense, Hydrotech Fuel Cell Technology "The HYDROTEC Fuel Cell Power Cube is at the core of every GM fuel cell product. These power systems transform electrified systems into fuel cell technology rapidly. GM Defense can leverage FCPC to rapidly deploy fuel cell capabilities to enhance warfighter capability and support mission use cases."
H2 Defence Hubs 7.10. 27 May 2023, ScienceDirect, Green energy hubs for the military that can also support the civilian mobility sector with green hydrogen "Coupling the civil sector with H2 storage in military renewable energy source (RES) hubs can facilitate a green transition of the civilian and military sectors by integrating RESs at lower cost."
India H2 Defence 7.11. 24 Mar 2023, Indian Aerospace and Defence Bulletin, Green H2 Energy: The Next Big Step For Indian Armed Forces "The Green H2 Mission recently announced by the state is poised to establish New Delhi as a hub for this eco-friendly fuel in India. This fuel will be produced entirely within India, eliminating the need for the country to rely on external sources for energy supply."
US DIU 7.12. 17 Mar 2023, Hypersonix, Australia's Hydrogen Powered Hypersonix Selected by US Defence Innovation Unit for Test Vehicle "Hypersonix DART AE (Additive Engineering) vehicle makes significant use of 3D-printing and is powered by a hydrogen-fuelled SPARTAN scramjet engine, capable of flying non-ballistic flight patterns at speeds of Mach 5 to Mach 7."
Hylium  Industries 7.13. 16 Mar 2023, Hylium Industries, Hylium Industries develops creative technologies on compact hydrogen liquefaction and ultra light hydrogen storage through R&D programs, "Hylium Industries' HyliumX is a hydrogen fuel cell powered drone operating on liquefied hydrogen. The HyliumX has a flight endurance of up to five hours."
DOE Nuclear H2 7.14. 07 Mar 2023, USA Department of Energy, Nine Mile Point Begins Clean H2 Production "DOE supported the construction and installation of a low-temperature electrolysis system at the Nine Mile Point nuclear power plant that leverages the facility’s existing H2 storage system, using electricity generated at the plant to split H20 into hydrogen and oxygen."
GM Defence ISV 7.15. 21 Feb 2023, GM Defence, Delivering the Future of Power on the Battlefield "HYDROTEC fuel cell power cube is designed to be easily integrated into a variety of vehicle platforms. HYDROTEC has been field tested with thousands of run hours and proven performance and underpinning technology of GM’s Mobile Power Generation System."
HevenDrones UAV H2D55 7.16. 14 Feb 2023, HevenDrones, HevenDrones launched its first hydrogen-powered drone for defence and commercial use, the H2D55 "With 5-times greater energy efficiency than Li battery drones, H2D55 is capable of flying for 100 min with 7kg. H2D55 is programmed with a control system that contains multiple gyroscopes & supporting algorithms to extend stable flight."
TKMS Fuel Cell XLUUV 7.17. 08 Feb 2023, NavalNews, World’s Largest Submarine Drone Being Built In Germany "German shipbuilder TKMS (Thyssenkrupp Marine Systems) is preparing to start construction of their MUM (Modifiable Underwater Mothership) underwater drone. The prototype will be powered by hydrogen fuel cell AIP (air independent power) propulsion and generate about 80 kW power."
Naval News H2 7.18. 05 Feb 2023, Infinity, Infinity Fuel Cell and Hydrogen, Inc., announces first commercial contract for its air-independent H2 fuel cell power system for use in unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV’s) "The primary advantage of H2 fuel cell power in larger UUVs is the ability to extend underwater time to weeks or even months."
Naval News H2 7.19. 18 Nov 2022, Naval Technology, Environmental sustainability innovation: Analysis of Leading companies in hydrogen fuel cells for the aerospace and defence industry, "Within the emerging innovation stage, hydrogen fuel cells, and fuel cells for aircraft are disruptive technologies that are in the early stages of application and should be tracked closely."
SFC 7.20. 31 Oct 2022, SFC Energy, Reliable fuel cell solutions, "Up to 80 % weight can be saved with SFC fuel cells. Therefore, soldiers can equip themselves with the minimum of batteries and extend the duration of the mission having saved the weight and volume."

Deepsea H2 8.1. 11 May 2024, ScienceDiirect, Hydrogen as a deep sea shipping fuel: Modelling the volume requirements "This study focused on one potential future fuel for shipping: hydrogen. The justification is that other leading candidates for future fuels (such as e-methanol and e-ammonia) require a hydrogen feedstock for production. Therefore, hydrogen will always be less energy intensive to produce than either of these fuels."
Feadship Project 821 8.2. 04 May 2024, Feadship, Feadship ushers in the fuel-cell era with the launch of 118.80-metre Project 821 "Project 821 has a cryogenic fuel tank aboard that holds 92 m2 (some 4 tonnes) of hydrogen, the sixteen compact fuel cells, their switchboard connection to the DC electrical grid, and the vent stacks for the escaping water vapour added four metres to the yacht's original specification length."
Rice University AUV 8.3. 25 Apr 2024, Rice University, Underwater robot pioneers new energy-efficient buoyancy control "The robot serves as PoC for fuel cell-based buoyancy control devices to reduce operating costs for remotely operated or autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) with applications ranging from environmental monitoring & oceanographic research to military & industrial tasks, providing a quieter, more energy-efficient alternative to conventional thruster-driven AUVs."
H2R Solutions 8.4. 18 Apr 2024, LR, LR to class Torghatten Nord’s H2-powered ferry duo for Arctic sailings "Two H2-powered passenger ferries ordered by Torghatten Nord are set for Lloyd’s Register class following Approval in Principle awarded 08/2022. Designed by The Norwegian Ship Design Company to operate in the challenging waters of the Vestfjordstrekninga fjord in the Arctic Circle, the two vessels will be built at Norwegian shipyard, Myklebust Verft."
H2R Solutions 8.5. 27 Mar 2024, H2R, Waste to Value - Carbon negative & less expensive than fossil fuel alternatives "Plasma Electrolysis System is a thermodynamically favoured technology spontaneous in the forward direction & uses AI to adjust real-time system performance to allow processing of mixed & variable waste streams without a catalyst to achieve pure H2 or syngas."
H2 Energy Observer 8.6. 14 Mar 2024, EnergyObserver, Through expeditions and innovations, Energy Observer is exploring practical solutions whilst developing new technologies to accelerate ecological transition "The boat and her onboard technologies are exposed to harsh environmental conditions, shocks, and extreme temperatures, and fitted with 8 carbon fiber tanks holding a total of 62kg of hydrogen at 350 bar."
Yanmaha Outboards 8.7. 07 Mar 2024, MAN Energy Solutions, MITSUI Performs World-First Hydrogen Test - Adapted ME-GI gas engine runs on hydrogen up to 100% load "MAN/MITSUI successfully tested a 50-bore MAN B&W two-stroke engine up to 100% load at its Tamano facility while running on hydrogen, a world-first for the maritime industry."
Yanmaha Outboards 8.8. 14 Feb 2024, Yamaha, YAMAHA DEVELOPS HYDROGEN FUEL SYSTEM WITH ROUSH AND REGULATOR MARINE, HYDROGEN OUTBOARD UNVEILED AT MIAMI INTERNATIONAL BOAT SHOW "Yamaha, Regulator and Roush displayed the boat hull, fuel system and outboard to demonstrate how hydrogen could work as a possible fuel source in a marine environment."
Sandia Solutions 8.9. 01 Feb 2024, Sandia, Exploring LH2 Tank Technology for Zero-Emission Fuel Cell Vessels "This study explored how improvements in LH2 tank weight, shape, and multiplicity might increase LH2 storage aboard watercraft using hydrogen fuel cells for propulsion. We also sought to identify the most promising R&D routes to improving LH2 tank performance in the areas investigated." Sandia Maritime Applications
Yanmar 8.10. 09 Jan 2024, Yanmar, Development of Hydrogen-Fueled 4-Stroke Engine Underway for Zero Emission Vessels "Yanmar has embarked on the development of a hydrogen-fueled 4-stroke high-speed engine for power generation for coastal vessels in Japan as part of the Nippon Foundation’s zero emission ship demonstration experiment."
Teco 2030 Fuel Cell 8.11. 30 Nov 2023, Teco 2030 Fuel Cell, TECO Marine Fuel Cell System for heavy duty marine applications "Teco 2030 Fuel Cell modular system design gives new flexibility to newbuild vessels with advanced fuel conditioning system, enabling operations on compressed and liquid H2, ammonia, methanol and other H2 based carriers."
Yanmar Maritime H2 8.12. 09 Nov 2023, Yanmar Power Technology Co., Ltd, Yanmar Makes First Delivery of Maritime Hydrogen Fuel Cell System to Hybrid Passenger Ship "When running solely on the hydrogen fuel cell system and batteries, the ship creates zero emissions, with notable reductions in power source vibrations and noise, and the elimination of exhaust gas odors."
Three Gorges Hydrogen Boat No.1 8.13. 12 Oct 2023, Three Gorges Hydrogen Boat No.1, China’s first hydrogen ship sets sail in Three Gorges area "Powered by a 500kW hydrogen fuel cell, the ship was developed by a group of companies, including the China State Shipbuilding Corporation, China Yangtze Power Corporation and Jianglong Shipbuilding, and the Wuhan Changjiang Ship Design Institute."
Norway Norled H2 8.14. 09 Oct 2023, Norled / Ballard, World’s first liquid-powered hydrogen ship, MF Hydra, is powered by Ballard’s fuel cells "The MF Hydra, owned by one of Norway’s leading ferry and express boat operators, Norled AS, is the first commercial passenger and car ferry fueled by liquid hydrogen. Powered by Ballard's FCwave™ 200kw fuel cell modules."
ABB Maritime H2 8.15. 21 Sep 2023, ABB, ABB to power Samskip’s new hydrogen-fueled container vessels "Hydrogen fuel cell technology is considered as one of the most promising solutions to support shipping industry’s decarbonization agenda, with the potential to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase energy efficiency."
H2C RIB H2 8.16. 13 Sep 2023, RINA, HYDROGEN PROPULSION EASY AS H2C FOR DUTCH RIB "Students conducted a feasibility study, leading to the development of a proof-of-concept demo RIB, equipped with hydrogen, a fuel cell, a battery and an electric motor. This powertrain was then tested in a sloop. A further prototype was developed, which later underwent testing in the Port of Den Helder."
DNV LH2 8.17. 06 Sep 2023, HC-DNV, Moss Maritime Reaches Important Milestone – Approval In Principle For LH2, Liquified Hydrogen, Carrier Containment System From DNV "Moss Maritime has been granted an Approval in Principle from the classification society DNV for a containment system for ship transport of LH2 & ship transport of liquefied hydrogen."
H2 CAS 8.18. 10 Jul 2023, IEEE, Intelligent Dynamic Collision Avoidance Strategy of H2 Fuel Cell Unmanned Ship via Improved Fusion Dynamic Window Method "The safety field obstacle model of obstacle ships is explored to improve the obstacle collection of speed obstacle method, so that the collision avoidance process of H2 Fuel Cell Unmanned Ship can retain more feasible paths."
SWITCH Maritime H2 8.19. 26 Jun 2023, SWITCH Maritime, SWITCH Maritime is building the first fleet of zero-emissions vessels in North America "SWITCH’s flagship zero-emissions vessel, the Sea Change, is a 75-passenger ferry powered by H2 fuel cells and batteries. The vessel is substantially complete, entering operational sea trials at All American Marine shipyard in Bellingham, WA."
MDPI Marine H2 8.20. 19 Jun 2023, MDPI, A power allocation strategy for fuel cell ship considering fuel cell performance difference "In response to the deficiencies of the previous studies, a two-layer control-based power allocation strategy is proposed in this paper, which takes into account the performance differences among fuel cells."

Space perspective H2 Balloon 9.1. 12 Mar 2024, PHYS.ORG, Zero-boil-off tank experiments to enable long-duration space exploration "Although the dynamic ZBO approach is complex, it promises an impressive advantage over the currently used passive methods. An assessment of one nuclear propulsion concept for Mars transport estimated that passive boil-off losses for a large LH2 tank carrying 38 tons of fuel for a three-year mission to Mars would be approximately 16 tons/year."
Space perspective H2 Balloon 9.2. 21 Feb 2024, Space Perspective, The world’s only carbon-neutral spaceship "Space Perspective has designed a luxurious capsule to take passengers on a six-hour trip to the stratosphere, where they can enjoy panoramic views of our humble planet—which they’ll have risen above thanks to a giant hydrogen-filled balloon."
NASA H2 9.3. 29 Jan 2024, NASA, NASA’s Moon Shot Launched Commercial Fuel Cell Industry - Agency’s technology development prepared fuel cells for tomorrow’s renewable energy grids "NASA started investing in fuel cell technology in the 1960s when rest of world was still content to be powered by fossil fuels, driving NASA to explore new ways to generate & store energy."
NASA H2 9.4. 04 Jan 2024, NASA, Magnetohydrodynamic Drive for Hydrogen and Oxygen Production in Mars Transfer "A new approach employs magnetohydrodynamic electrolytic cell that extracts & separates O2 & H2 gas without moving parts in microgravity, removing need for a forced water recirculation loop & associated ancillary equipment such as pumps or centrifuges."
ESA H2 9.5. 21 Dec 2023, ESA, Green hydrogen for Ariane 6 and more "Ariane 6 uses LH2 & LO2 as fuel for its main and upper stages. Hydrogen in its gaseous form (H2) is rarely found on Earth, and so is currently produced in French Guiana from steam reforming of methanol, ESA & France’s space agency CNES to use to solar-powered electrolysis of H2O."
Lunar H2 9.6. 15 Nov 2023, Nature, Hydrogen-bearing vesicles in space weathered lunar calcium-phosphates "Here we present transmission electron microscopy analyses of Apollo lunar soil 79221 that reveal solar-wind hydrogen concentrated in vesicles as molecular hydrogen in the calcium-phosphates apatite and merrillite."
WHA H2 9.7. 21 Sep 2023, WHA International, Will hydrogen power the future of Aerospace? "Engineers have used Hydrogen in rocket fuel and Hydrogen fuel cells since the early years of space exploration. Hydrogen high power and quick refueling potential make it an attractive clean energy option for new aerospace applications as well."
Toyota Lunar Rover H2 Fuel Cell 9.8. 21 Jul 2023, Toyota, Development Status Toyota's Manned Pressurized Rover and MHI's LUPEX Rover "Toyota Fuel cell technology cultivated through long years of vehicle development and technologies developed for the moon, fed back to Earth used to create better vehicles and develop technologies for sustainable society with Lunar Cruiser developed by Toyota."
Infinite Composites LH2 9.9. 27 Jun 2023, Infinite Composites, INFINITE COMPOSITES: TYPE V TANKS FOR SPACE "Type V Space application: the infiniteCPV is a simplified all-composite design that allows for users to take advantage of the maximum fuel storage capacity at the lowest possible weight. Removing the need for a metallic or plastic gas barrier eliminates the potential of a liner failure."
Moon Mars H2 9.10. 06 Jun 2023, Nature, Assessment of the technological viability of photoelectrochemical devices for oxygen and fuel production on Moon and Mars "Present is a refined Martian solar irradiance spectrum and establish the thermodynamic and realistic efficiency limits of solar-driven lunar water-splitting and Martian carbon dioxide reduction (CO2R) devices."
Moon Mars H2 9.11. 09 May 2023, PHYS.ORG, Researchers switch from helium to hydrogen weather balloons "The National Weather Service provided the electrolysis equipment, which uses electricity to turn water into hydrogen gas and oxygen gas, and provided regular maintenance of the equipment. The ARM Sandia facility launches two weather balloons a day for weather service."
Destinus 9.12. 27 Mar 2023, Destinus, Destinus Receives 12M Grant for H2 Flight "Destinus, a European aerospace firm specializing in high-speed H2 powered airplanes, has been chosen by the Spanish Ministry of Science’s Centro para el Desarrollo Tecnológico e Industrial program to participate in a strategic initiative to further R&D for supersonic flight utilizing H2 as fuel."
Lunar H2O 9.13. 27 Mar 2023, Nature, A solar wind-derived H2O reservoir on the Moon hosted by impact glass beads "A report on the abundance, H2 isotope composition and core-to-rim variations of H2O measured in impact glass beads from lunar soils via Chang’e-5. The impact glass beads preserve hydration signatures & display H2O consistent with inward diffusion of solar wind-derived H2O."
IJER 9.14. 21 Feb 2023, IJER, Liquid Cooling Flow Field Design and Thermal Analysis of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Space Applications "This study examined PEM fuel cell elements and cooling flow channel design for space applications. The effect of the designed flow channel on the PEM fuel cell temperature distribution was investigated. "
JAXA Honda 9.15. 19 Jan 2023, JAXA Honda, Honda Signs Research and Development Contract with JAXA Regarding Circulative Renewable Energy System Designed to Supply Electricity Supporting Living Space for People During Lunar Surface Exploration "The circulative renewable energy system combines Honda’s original high differential pressure water electrolysis system & fuel cell."
Anasphere 9.16. 01 Jan 2023, Anasphere, Hydrogen Generation for Space, "Anasphere has been developing solid-state H2 gas generators since 2011 and produce dry H2 gas at a rapid & controlled rate. The primary space-related application for these generators is the inflation of Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Deceleratorss."
FORTUNE 9.17. 06 Dec 2022, FORTUNE, Space travel is heating up—and so are rocket fuel emissions, "NASA’s Artemis I launch is the first in a series of missions to enable human exploration of the moon and Mars. The mission successfully utilized H2 to produce enough energy to power four engines with 2 million pounds of thrust. The other main by-product was water vapor."
History H2 as fuel 9.18. 18 Oct 2022, Hydrogen Fuel News, History of H2 fuel has a fascinating connection with space programs"The aerospace industry has long known that there is considerable potential using H2 as an energy source. When President Kennedy announced in 1962 that US would land on the moon within a decade, he changed the path of the history of H2 fuel."
Infinity 9.19. 27 Sep 2022, Infinity Fuel Cell and Hydrogen, Inc. "Infinity announced that their Advanced Modular Power and Energy System (AMPES) operated successfully aboard Blue Origin’s New Shepard 23 flight Sep 12, "The AMPES system is a scalable modular system that could be used to power landers, rovers, surface equipment and habitats on the moon or Mars."
MT  Aerospace 9.20. 04 Jul 2022, MT Aerospace, MT have provided proof that a high-performance pressure tank made of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) can withstand cryogenic stress (H2 or O2), "In the future, the use of CFRP high-performance tanks enables safe rocket launches." phys.org https://phys.org/news/2021-07-rocket-tanks-carbon-fiberreinforced-plastic-proven.html

H2 Fe Process Voestalpine 10.1. 11 Apr 2024, Voestalpine, Greentec steel: landmark melting at voestalpine site Donawitz "The hydrogen-reduced pure iron was produced in the Hyfor pilot plant, while the landmark melting was carried out in the Group’s own Technikum Metallurgie research facility, a unique small but complete steel plant."
H2 Fe Process Metso 10.2. 25 Feb 2024, Santos, SANTOS SIGNS MOU TO SUPPORT GREEN STEEL TRANSFORMATION OF WHYALLA STEELWORKS IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA "Whyalla has all elements required for green steel industry – vast reserves of high-quality magnetite, abundant potential for renewable energy, cape-sized capable sea port & skilled workforce."
H2 Fe Process Metso 10.3. 24 Jan 2024, Nature, Green steel from red mud through climate-neutral hydrogen plasma reduction "We show the underlying chemical reactions, pH-neutralization processes and phase transformations during this surprisingly simple and fast reduction method and establishes a sustainable toxic-waste treatment from aluminium production through using red mud."
H2 Green Steel 10.4. 22 Jan 2024, H2 Green Steel, H2 Green Steel raises more than €4 billion in debt financing for the world’s first large-scale green steel plant "Use of green hydrogen as the reducing agent for iron ore in the steel-making process is one of the highest merit order use cases for green hydrogen we have identified."
H2 Fe Process Metso 10.5. 17 Jan 2024, Metso, Circored™ 100% Hydrogen based Fine Ore Reduction as one route to CO2 neutral steelmaking "The flexible process, which produces highly metalized direct reduced iron (DRI) or hot briquetted iron (HBI) that can be fed directly to an electric arc furnace, has proven its functionality and performance in an industrial-scale demonstration plant."
H2 Fe Process Review 10.6. 12 Dec 2023, ACS, A Review on the Modeling and Simulation of Shaft Furnace Hydrogen Metallurgy: A Chemical Engineering Perspective "The discrete element method (DEM) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD)–DEM models have been used for particle-scale simulation to investigate inhomogeneous particle descent and relevant particle–particle interactions."
H2 CrMo Quench Process Review 10.7. 11 Dec 2023, MDPI, In-Situ H2 Charging Effect on the Fracture Behaviour of 42CrMo4 Steel Submitted to Various Quenched and Tempering Heat Treatments "Here, 42CrMo4 steel was subjected to quenched and tempered heat treatments using different temperature and time durations, in order to obtain different tempered martensite microstructures."
H2 Fe Process 10.8. 02 Oct 2023, Nature, How much hydrogen is in green steel? "Here two key questions that need to be answered before implementing hydrogen as a reductant at the industrial scale for green steel production: (1) How much hydrogen is in green steel? (2) Will green steel suffer from severe hydrogen embrittlement?"
Australia H2 Fe Process 10.9. 01 Oct 2023, ScienceDirect, Green steel: Synergies between the Australian iron ore industry and the production of green hydrogen "Australia could produce low-cost green steel for value-added export and there is strong correlation between hydrogen hubs and iron ore operations. Existing infrastructure supports the roll-out of the industry."
H2 Fe Process 10.10. 29 Sep 2023, Metso-Aurubis, Aurubis AG and Metso working on the decarbonization of Hamburg copper smelter "Metso’s technology, consisting of complete hydrogen-ready Outotec Anode Furnaces with hoods and auxiliary equipment used in the anode refining process with with Aurubis as a key in designing the H2-ready furnace by Metso, a first in the copper industry."
H2 LPSO Process 10.11. 10 Sep 2023, MDPI, Design of LPSO Phases in Mg-Y-Ni Alloys to Impact Hydrogenation Kinetics "This work demonstrated LPSO structures decompose into Mg phase, Mg2Ni phase, lamellar Mg/Mg-Y structures, and YHx particles and shows H2 kinetics can be impacted in Mg-Y-Ni alloys by controlling the LPSO phases using common metallurgical techniques."
H2 Fe Ore Process 10.12. 09 Sep 2023, ACS, Heat Transfer Conditions in Hydrogen-Fired Rotary Kilns for Iron Ore Processing "This work aims to map operational regimes relevant to H2-fired rotary kiln based on heat transfer conditions, including influence of flame length & presence of char particles. Compared to the conditions in an industrial case of iron ore pelletizing, applying a coal flame."
H2 LPSO Process 10.13. 30 Aug 2023, MDPI, Hydrogen-Based Direct Reduction of Iron Oxides: A Review on the Influence of Impurities "Here the advantages and challenges of using H2 as the reductant are examined, and an overview of important projects in this area is introduced & critical review of the kinetics of Fe reduction with impact of various gangue materials on reduction."
H2 Hydro Al Process 10.14. 15 Jun 2023, Hydro, World’s first batch of recycled aluminium using hydrogen fueled production "Green H2 can remove hard to abate emissions from fossil fuels, in processes where electricity is not an alternative, both in the aluminium industry and in other heavy industries, The results from this test can also be relevant for using H2 in primary aluminium casthouses."
H2 Al Process 10.15. 20 May 2023, MDPI, LCA Analysis Decarbonisation Potential of Aluminium Primary Production by Applying Hydrogen and CCUS Technologies "The results show that green H2 replacing NG is the most environmentally beneficial option, accounting for a 10.76% reduction in Global Warming Potential and 1.26% in Photochemical Ozone Formation."
H2 Steel Australia 10.16. 18 May 2023, ScienceDirect, Green steel: Synergies between the Australian iron ore industry and the production of green hydrogen "Study highlights opportunities / challenges facing Australian steel industry in contributing to decarbonization globally, underscoring the role of government in driving growth & development of a green steel industry."
H2 DRi EAF Steel Process 10.17. 04 May 2023, Nature, Global green hydrogen-based steel opportunities surrounding high quality renewable energy and iron ore deposits "In this study, we provide a baseline assessment of the global potential of renewables-powered steel production using green H2-DRI-EAF technology, where the entire supply chain is co-located at the iron ore mine vicinities."
H2 Fe Process 10.18. 01 May 2023, T&F Online, Study on hydrogen smelting reduction behaviour in synthetic molten HIsarna slag "The reaction rate is significantly improved by injecting Hydrogen into the molten slag; bubbles are generated during the Hydrogen injection resulting in ample surface area between the Hydrogen and liquid slag."
NH3 Steel Process 10.19. 30 Mar 2023, Advanced Science, Reducing Iron Oxide with NH3: A Sustainable Path to Green Steel "Demonstrated is how to make sustainable steel by reducing solid iron oxides with H2 released from NH3. NH3 is an annually 180 million ton traded chemical energy carrier, with established transcontinental logistics and low liquefaction costs."
H2 Fe Process 10.20. 15 Mar 2023, T&F Online, Development of softening and melting testing conditions simulating blast furnace operation with hydrogen injection "In this study, a 2-D axisymmetric Computational Fluid Dynamics model is used to simulate the internal conditions of a modern blast furnace operation, and a future operation with tuyere level hydrogen injection."

Natural H2 11.1. 03 May 2024, YLE, 'Fuel of the future' deposits found across Finland, "The Geological Survey of Finland has published a map of H2 discoveries in the Finnish bedrock. According to the map, H2 has been found in groundwater in several locations across the country. The finds indicate so-called natural H2, which is produced in the bedrock by natural processes on its own, rather than through artificial means such as electrolysis, making a more efficient source of energy."
Natural H2 11.2. 04 Mar 2024, The University of Texas, Producing Hydrogen From Rocks Gains Steam as Scientists Advance New Methods, "During serpentinization, iron-rich rocks release hydrogen as a byproduct of chemical reactions. Serpentinization usually occurs at high temperatures. With natural catalysts that include nickel and other platinum group elements."
Natural H2 11.3. 09 Feb 2024, PHYS.ORG, Largest flow of natural H2 gas ever found measured in Albanian chromium mine, "A team of geologists working with a pair of colleagues from Albania has measured the largest natural flow of H2 ever in an Albanian Cr mine. In their study, reported in the journal Science, the group measured H2 gas bubbling up through liquid pools in the mine."
Natural H2 11.4. 08 Feb 2024, DOE ARPA-E, U.S. DOE Announces $20 Million to 16 Projects Spearheading Exploration of Geologic H2, "USA project teams will explore the possibility of accelerating the production & extraction of natural H2, transforming our understanding of this critical energy resource while accelerating solutions we need to ncrease our nation’s energy security."
Natural H2 11.5. 25 Jan 2024, Yale School of the Environment, Natural Hydrogen: A Potential Clean Energy Source Beneath Our Feet, "As studies show far more natural hydrogen underground than believed, well-funded efforts to drill for the gas are underway around the globe. H2 seeps to the surface whenever it has a chance, so drilling to provide a route may be all that is needed."
Natural H2 11.6. 20 Jan 2024, ACS, Advancing Natural Hydrogen Exploration: Headspace Gas Analysis in Water-Logged Environments, "Here we present a novel approach for advancing natural hydrogen exploration through the analysis of headspace gas of agitated groundwater extracted from dedicated shallow boreholes to better estimate the hydrogen gas flux and its variations with time."
Natural H2 11.7. 02 Jan 2024, Science Direct, Deep learning–assisted phase equilibrium analysis for producing natural hydrogen, "Here, natural hydrogen industry chain are provided to control the possible phase transitions under certain environmental conditions that may be observed in the natural hydrogen reservoirs, storage and transportation facilities."
Natural H2 11.8. 01 Jan 2024, Science Direct, Natural hydrogen in the energy transition: Fundamentals, promise, and enigmas, "Current estimations suggest that approximately 20 Mtpy of natural hydrogen are escaping from the surface into the atmosphere [12]. Most of this hydrogen travels up to the ionosphere and ends up escaping into space."
Economist Natural H2 11.9. 20 Dec 2023, The Economist, Meet the boffins and buccaneers drilling for hydrogen - The search is on for a clean fuel that could one day replace oil, "Unlike actual gold, hydrogen is spectacularly useful. As a fuel, in theory it could power cars, buses, planes and ships. It could be burned in power plants, generating electricity."
Natural H2 11.10. 13 Dec 2023, Hydrogen Insight, 'Energy of the future' | French president promises 'massive funding' for natural hydrogen, "French President Macron: “To strengthen us, I wanted to tell you here that we are going to go further and that in ‘France 2030’, we are going to provide massive funding to explore the potential of what we call white H2, that is to say natural H2."
NYT Natural H2 11.11. 04 Dec 2023, New York Times, It Could Be a Vast Source of Clean Energy, Buried Deep Underground, "Natural hydrogen, also called white hydrogen because of its purity, could be a game changer, scientists say, because it is a potential source of clean energy continuously generated by the earth. Hydrogen reservoirs form when heated water meets iron-rich rocks."
Natural H2 11.12. 04 Dec 2023, SA Gov, Natural hydrogen, "Australia could be one of the most promising areas for H2 exploration, de facto a couple of wells already found H2, whereas they were drilled to look for hydrocarbons. The sum of areas from where H2 is seeping overpasses 45 km2 in Kangaroo Island as in the Yorke Peninsula."
Natural H2 11.13. 24 Oct 2023, AUS Gov, Geoscience Australia supporting hydrogen research, "There is interest in the presence of natural H2 accumulations and the potential discovery of H2 gas fields. The extent of this natural H2 is not well understood, but there are reports of high concentrations of natural H2 in Australia."
Natural H2 11.14. 05 Sep 2023, NASA, Natural Hydrogen: Circular Depressions Seep Hydrogen Gas, "Australia may be a treasure map of sorts for a natural source of clean energy. Clusters of so-called “fairy circles” in the North Perth Basin of Western Australia have been found to seep hydrogen gas from their perimeters."
Natural H2 11.15. 14 Aug 2023, Frontiers in Earth Science, Natural H2 seeps or salt lakes: how to make a difference? Grass Patch example, Western Australia, "This study soil-gas sampling method includes a monitoring procedure compatible with time series measurements via a portable gas analyser, getting rid of artificially produced H2. Low H2 values -30 ppm measured."
Natural H2 11.16. 22 Jul 2023, Nature, Characterization of the spontaneously recharging natural hydrogen reservoirs of Bourakebougou in Mali, "When comparing a H2 reservoir system to classical oil and gas reservoir systems, the results show that the H2 reservoir is a dynamic system that is progressively recharged in H2-rich gas at the production timescale."
Natural H2 11.17. 04 Jul 2023, CSIRO, The earth might hold huge stores of natural hydrogen – and prospectors are already scouring South Australia for it, "Ancient, iron-rich rocks can produce hydrogen. So can rocks such as serpentinite, and basalt produced from magma emerging in the deep ocean, or from organic-rich rocks such as coals or shales."
Natural H2 11.18. 01 Jun 2023, European Geologist, The place of natural H2 in the energy transition: A position paper, "H2 exploration should focus on areas where ferrous Fe and/or natural radioactivity is present and can react with H2O. Magmatic rocks are of importance & many occurrences of H2 seepages are known on continental or offshore regions related to these rocks."
Natural H2 11.19. 29 May 2023, HyTerra, NATURAL HYDROGEN EXPLORATION & PRODUCTION, "Natural hydrogen is generated through naturally occurring, geological processes in the subsurface. Although hundreds of historical wells have observed natural hydrogen, explorers previously had no incentive to commercialise this resource."
Natural H2 11.20. 13 Apr 2023, US Geology Survey, The Potential for Geologic Hydrogen for Next-Generation Energy, "If even a small fraction of this estimated H2 volume could be recovered, there would be enough H2 across all the global deposits to last for hundreds of years and the amount of H2 in Earth’s interior could constitute a primary energy resource."

Australian National University 12.1. AU - Australian National University (ANU) Publications on aspects of the Hydrogen economy transition.
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation 12.2. AU - Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Publications from CSIRO on Hydrogen Fuel Cell research and development of renewable energy solutions.
Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology 12.3. AU - Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) Publications from the RMIT Sustainable Hydrogen Energy Laboratory (SHEL) that pioneers research and development on hydrogen energy solutions.
University of NSW Hydrogen Research 12.4. AU - University of NSW Hydrogen storage and battery technology groupResearch focuses on fabrication and storage optimization of a novel porous solid-state hydrogen storage material in fuel cell integrated systems to reduce the hydrogen storage pressure to only 10MPa, six times less than current market technology.
frontiers 12.5. CH - Frontiers Frontiers is the 3rd most-cited and 6th largest research publisher and open science platform. Our research journals are community-driven and peer-reviewed by editorial boards of more than 260,000 top researchers.
MDPO 12.6. CH - MDPI Hydrogen Journal MDPI has supported academic communities since 1996. Based in Basel, Switzerland, MDPI has the mission to foster open scientific exchange in all forms, across all disciplines.
SciOpen 12.7. CN - SciOpen SciOpen is a professional open access resource for discovery of scientific and technical content published by the Tsinghua University Press, its publishing partners, providing the scholarly publishing community with innovative technology and market-leading capabilities.
Hydrogen Tech World 12.8. DE - Hydrogen Tech World Publications including an interesting mix of company profiles, in-depth technical articles, reports from major end users and projects in the hydrogen production industries.
Hydrogen Europe Research 12.9. EU - Hydrogen Europe Research Publications from the European scientific community involved in the development of a new, industrial ecosystem based on hydrogen and committed to moving towards a circular, carbon-neutral economy.
H2Ships Europe Research 12.10. EU - Interreg: North-West Europe H2SHIPS Research Hydrogen in shipping; H2SHIPS Projects and a place with technical materials relating to hydrogen and fuel cells in shipping. The site is also a portal for sharing the H2SHIPS Project outputs.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 12.11. INT - International Journal of Hydrogen Energy A central vehicle for the exchange and dissemination of new ideas, technology developments and research results in the field of Hydrogen Energy between scientists and engineers throughout the world.
Advanced Industrial, Science and Technology, Fukushima Renewable Energy Institute, Hydrogen Energy Carrier Team 12.12. JP - Advanced Industrial, Science and Technology, Fukushima Renewable Energy Institute, Hydrogen Energy Carrier Team Developing technologies for storing and utilizing large amounts of renewable energy that will help solve several energy issues facing Japan.
Korea Institute of Energy Research 12.13. KR - Korea Institute of Energy Research Future Energy Research Division conducts researches on H2 generation, storage, transportation, and utilization to realize a future energy society, focusing on the development of fuel cell technologies represented by generation, storage, and use of H2, an eco-friendly source of energy with economic benefits obtained by coal fuels and water.
ScienceDirect 12.14. NL - ScienceDirect From foundational science to new and novel research, discover our large collection of Physical Sciences and Engineering publications, covering a range of disciplines, from the theoretical to the applied.
Journal of Green Technologies and Sustainability 12.15. NL - ScienceDirect Journal of Green Technologies and Sustainability This Journal encourages and promotes interdisciplinary research and development to important technological and theoretical developments in greentech and sustainability issues.
National University of Singapore 12.16. SG - National University of Singapore - Centre for Hydrogen Innovations Research site focus promotes cutting-edge R&D advancements in H2 production, storage, and utilization; and fosters collaborations with industries, academia, and agencies to drive H2-based solutions.
IET 12.17. UK - TheIET.ORG The Institution of Engineering and Technology Wiley - Search "hydrogen + energy" => research developments -> we inspire, inform and influence the global engineering and technology community to engineer a better world.
PO 12.18. UK - Science X / PHYS.ORG Search "hydrogen + energy" => Daily science news on research developments, technological breakthroughs and the latest scientific innovations.
PO 12.19. UK - University of Birmingham The Birmingham Centre for Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Research focuses on research and development, applications and demonstrations of fuel cell and hydrogen systems and technologies.
ACS 12.20. US - American Chemical Society (ACS) pubs.acs.org ACS Publications’ commitment to publishing high-quality content continues to attract impactful research that addresses the world’s most important challenges.
IEEE 12.21. US - IEEE ieee.org IEEE is the world’s largest technical professional organization dedicated to advancing technology for the benefit of humanity.
Mendeley 12.22. US - Mendeley.com Search "hydrogen + energy" => Year/Document Type/Journal/Author/Access Type/Most relevant/Most recent/Most cited science articles on research developments, technological breakthroughs and the latest scientific innovations.
nauture 12.23. US - Nature.com Search "hydrogen + evolution + reaction + HER" for wide variety of journal articles on researched developments, technological breakthroughs and latest innovations.
National Renewable Energy Laboratory 12.24. US - National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) NREL's research accelerates development, integration, and scale up of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies to enable widespread deployment across multiple energy sectors.
Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy 12.25. US - Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Technical information about hydrogen published in technical reports, conference proceedings, journal articles, and websites is provided, across categories: General, Production, Delivery, and Storage.
Pennsylvania State University 12.26. US - Pennsylvania State University, H2E Center Researchers at Penn State are active in a variety of topics in hydrogen production, storage, and use in fuel cells and for other applications.
Proceedings of the National Academv of Sciences 12.27. US - Proceedings of the National Academv of Sciences, PNAS PNAS is one of the world's most-cited and comprehensive multidisciplinary scientific journals, publishing more than 3,500 research papers annually.
University of Michigan 12.28. US - University of Michigan - MI Hydrogen A joint venture by the Office of the Vice President for Research, Michigan Engineering and the School for Environment and Sustainability.
University of South Carolina 12.29. US - University of South Carolina College of Engineering and Computing Publications includes a number of specific areas of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells research related to fundamental knowledge, technical applications, and integrated systems.
Southwest Research Institute 12.30. US - Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) SwRI develops applied R&D solutions with hydrogen technology used in rockets, alternative combustion, fuel cells, energy storage, and industrial processing plants.
University of Texas 12.31. US - University of Texas (UT) Feautured publications and White Papers on Blue Hydrogen, Green H2 economy, H2 infrastructure, and achieving NET ZERO by 2050.

HER: 2H2O(l) ↔ 2H2(g) + O2(g) E0 = -1.229V

Atomic Mass (mole): Hydrogen 1.00784 u; Carbon 12.011 u; Oxygen 15.999 u

Molar Mass: Hydrogen 2.01568 g/mole; Carbon 12.011 g/mole; Oxygen 31.998 g/mole

1000g H2(g) + 7937g O2(g) ↔ 8937g H2O(l)

Heuristic: 3kg H2 contains 100 kWh Energy

sciencedirect.com - Hydrogen Energy Systems
Gravimetric Energy Density HHV
Carbon Price Tracker: Cost per 1000kg of CO2 produced (€)

Recommended Citation:
Robert Cole Basford (2024). Hydrogen Energy Research.
[online] otso.com.au. Available at: https://www.otso.com.au/.