Hydrogen Energy Research
Published 2024-03-05

🌑About // 🌕CV
🌕Avocation
🌕Inventor
🌕LinkedIn
🌕Presented
🔴Research HomeHomeHome
🌕Skills & Qualifications
🌕Work Experience
⭘2020-present OTSO
⭘2013-2020 Germany
⭘1997-2013 Finland
⭘1990-1997 ADF.Navy
⭘1978-1990 ADF.Army



Hydrogen Energy Research

Reshoring renewables manufacturing

Hydrogen Energy Research
Scientific & Applied Engineering References

Ikigai powered by

Open-source Technology for Sustainable Opportunities



20 Dec 2023, The Economist, "Unlike actual gold, hydrogen is spectacularly useful."

H2 HER 1.1. 02 Mar 2024, ScienceDirect, Hydrogen uptake kinetics of cathodic polarized metals in aqueous electrolytes, "This work aims to bring recent methodological developments in the electrocatalysis community to the area of HE so as to gain new fundamental insight into hydrogen absorption from aqueous electrolytes."
H2 Solar 2.1. 01 Mar 2024, ACS, Simple Immersing Method of Nanocoating on Uneven Surfaces Applicable to Highly Durable Ta3N5 Nanorod Photoelectrode for Water Splitting, "Herein, this study focuses on developing wet chemistry to achieve uniform coating on rough surfaces by applying low-solubility complexes."
FC PEM 3.1. 04 Mar 2024, SciOpen, Pt single atoms coupled with Ru nanoclusters enable robust hydrogen oxidation for high-performance anion exchange membrane fuel cells, "Here we develop a single atom-cluster multiscale structure with isolated Pt single atoms anchored on Ru nanoclusters supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanosheets (Pt1-Ru/NC)."



H2 HER 1.2. 29 Feb 2024, ScienceDirect, A collector-generator cell for in-situ detection of electrochemically produced H2, "This dual working electrode technology could provide a convenient and rapid method for H2 determination and evaluate the performance of H2 generation catalysts that assembled on the semiconductor thin-films."
H2 HER 1.3. 26 Feb 2024, Nature, Novel mixed heterovalent (Mo/Co)Ox-zerovalent Cu system as bi-functional electrocatalyst for overall water splitting, "Here an electrocatalyst of a novel heterovalent hybrid amorphous & crystalline structure based on Co, Cu, & Mo was fabricated on a nickel foam surface through a one-step scalable solvothermal technique."
H2 HER 1.4. 22 Feb 2024, ACS, Enhancing Hydrogen Evolution Catalysis through Potential-Induced Structural Phase Transition in Transition-Metal Dichalcogenide Thin Sheets, "This study introduces an innovative approach to crafting heterophase structures in TMDs, using WS2 as a model compound, encompassing both semiconducting & metallic types."
H2 HER 1.5. 19 Feb 2024, ScienceDirect, Electrocatalytic and structural investigation of trimetallic NiFeMo bifunctional electrocatalyst for industrial alkaline water electrolysis, "Investigated is a trimetallic NiFeMo material on a nickel foam support, serving as a bifunctional electrocatalyst for catalyzing both HER and OER."
H2 HER 1.6. 16 Feb 2024, Nature, Facilitating alkaline hydrogen evolution reaction on the hetero-interfaced Ru/RuO2 through Pt single atoms doping, "Advanced physico-chemical characterizations disclose that the sluggish water dissociation is accelerated by RuO2 while Pt SAs and the metallic Ru facilitate the subsequent H* combination."
PEM HER 1.7. 15 Feb 2024, ACS, Distinct Site Motifs Activate O2 & H2 on Supported Au Nanoparticles in Liquid Water, "Here, structural characterizations reveal how the interface of Au nanoparticles, liquid H2O, & metal oxide supports mediate the kinetically relevant activation of H2 and sequential reduction of O2-derived intermediates during the formation of H2O2 & H2O."
PEM HER 1.8. 13 Feb 2024, Nature, Microenvironment reconstitution of highly active Ni single atoms on oxygen-incorporated Mo2C for water splitting, "Here, we report a Ni single atoms supported on oxygen-incorporated Mo2C via Ni-O-Mo bridge bonds, that gives high oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) bifunctional activity."
PEM HER 1.9. 05 Feb 2024, ACS, Deciphering the Influence of Morphology and Crystal Structure on Alkaline HER Activity in Polymorphic Co Diselenide, "We demonstrate that in polymorphic materials structural variations & morphological differences have minimal influence on HER activity while the number & kind of active sites are dominant factors in the HER activity."
PEM HER 1.10. 03 Feb 2024, Nature, Lattice oxygen activation and local electric field enhancement by co-doping Fe and F in CoO nanoneedle arrays for industrial electrocatalytic water oxidation, "This work demonstrates a conceptual strategy to couple lattice oxygen and local electric field for effective electrocatalytic water oxidation."
PEM HER 1.11. 29 Jan 2024, SciOpen, Hydrogen spillover bridged dual nano-islands triggered by built-in electric field for efficient and robust alkaline HER at ampere-level current density, "Herein, the unique Ru and RuP2 dual nano-islands implanted on N-doped carbon substrate, in which a built-in electric field generated between Ru-RuP2 dual nano-islands driven by work function difference."
PEM HER 1.12. 29 Jan 2024, SciOpen, Synthesis of Co, Ni-doped MoS2 as durable and pH-universal catalyst for hydrogen evolution, "We explore cost-effective and efficient electrocatalysts that can perform well across different pH levels. In this study, a straightforward hydrothermal method is presented to synthesize Ni, Co-doped MoS2 nanosheets on carbon fiber paper."
PEM Ru 1.13. 21 Jan 2024, SciOpen, Anchoring Ru Clusters to Highly Defective N-Doped Carbon Nanotubes via a Thermal-Shock Strategy for Stable Industrial Hydrogen Evolution, "Here we employed highly defective N-doped carbon nanotubes (d-N-CNT) as the support to achieve uniform and firm anchoring of Ru clusters (~1.9 nm) via a thermal-shock strategy."
PEM CuS 1.14. 17 Jan 2024, ACS, Surface Structure to Tailor the Electrochemical Behavior of Mixed-Valence Copper Sulfides during Water Electrolysis, "In this study, redox chemistry of Cu9S5/CuS was correlated to the atomic arrangements & coordination geometry of the surface exposed sites, and the structure–activity correlation provides electrochemistry of the metal sulfides."
PEM Ce Electrolysis Mg-Ni 1.15. 10 Jan 2024, Nature, Oxophilic Ce single atoms-triggered active sites reverse for superior alkaline hydrogen evolution, "Here, we report that by combining highly oxophilic cerium single atoms and fully-exposed ruthenium nanoclusters on a nitrogen functionalized carbon support, the alkaline hydrogen evolution centers are facilely reversed."
PEM Electrolysis Mg-Ni 1.16. 06 Jan 2024, ACS, Assessing Challenges of 2D-Molybdenum Ditelluride for Efficient Hydrogen Generation in a Full-Scale Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Water Electrolyzer, "In this work, we leverage our expertise with the MoTe2 system to answer the question whether metallic 1T′-MoTe2 is a viable alternative to 1T′-MoS2 and Pt catalysts."
PEM Electrolysis Magnetism 1.17. 03 Jan 2024, ACS, Magnetoelectrocatalysis: Evidence from the H2 Evolution Reaction, "Here, the magnetic gradient is critical to enhance electron transfer rates. Magnetic effects on electron transfer trigger new fundamental research in kinetics and electron transfer theory and inform electrocatalyst design from the novel perspective of magnetoelectrocatalysis."
Electrolysis Mg-Ni 1.18. 13 Dec 2023, Nature, Eco-friendly mixed metal (Mg–Ni) ferrite nanosheets for efficient electrocatalytic water splitting, "Spinel ferrites can be earth-abundant, inexpensive, eco-compatible and highly effective materials, because of their sustainability under harsh conditions, high redox features, easy modulation in valence states, and enhanced electrical conductivity."
Electrolysis lanthium nickelate 1.19. 13 Dec 2023, Nature, Crystal-facet-dependent surface transformation dictates the oxygen evolution reaction activity in lanthanum nickelate, "Here we investigate epitaxial perovskite thin films, which are ideally suited for the comparison of different crystallographic facets, in contrast to typically employed particulate-based electrocatalysts."
Electrolysis Nanosheet 1.20. 12 Dec 2023, PHYS.ORG, The 'one-pot' nanosheet method catalyzing a green energy revolution, "Our 2D nanosheets have 2.8 times more surface area than spherical nanoparticles because of their sheet-like shape and >2.0 times catalytic activity of the current generation of H2 evolution catalysts in performance tests."

H2 Solar 2.2. 26 Feb 2024, ScienceDirect, Promoting photocatalytic HER rates in layered graphitic carbon nitride through integrated non-noble CoB co-catalyst, "CoB-gC3N4 composite showed ∼60 times higher H2 generation rate compared to bare gC3N4 nanosheets, with good stability that unanimously led to higher photocatalytic activity."
H2 Solar 2.3. 24 Feb 2024, ScienceDirect, Electrodeposited graphene@TiO2 nanosheets for enhanced photocathodic protection, "Gr@e-TiO2 exhibited more negative open circuit potential & higher photocurrent density for 304SS protection. Enhanced photocathodic protection performance of Gr@e-TiO2 is attributed to large specific surface area & charge transport graphene efficiency."
H2 Solar 2.4. 23 Feb 2024, ACS, Evolution in the Design of Water Oxidation Catalysts with Transition-Metals: A Perspective on Biological, Molecular, Supramolecular, and Hybrid Approaches, "We provide guiding principles on opportunities, challenges, and crucial factors for designing novel water oxidation catalysts based on a synergy between conventional and contemporary methodologies."
H2 Solar 2.5. 23 Feb 2024, ACS, Sunlight-Driven Hydrogen Generation: Acceleration of Synergism between Cu–Ag Cocatalysts on a CdS System, "The results of this study hold promise for an eventual transition to replace the costly and conventional catalysts used for sustainable hydrogen generation."
H2 Solar 2.6. 21 Feb 2024, ACS, Tuning of TiO2/CdS Hybrid Semiconductor with Au Cocatalysts: State-of-the-Art Design for Sunlight-Driven H2 Generation from H2O Splitting, "Here, pH, temp, catalyst dosage, reactor volume, light intensity & sacrificial agents evaluated, & concluded sustainable H2 can be achieved via tuning of AuNPs on a hybrid semiconductor system."
H2 Solar 2.7. 19 Feb 2024, Nature, Stable water splitting using photoelectrodes with a cryogelated overlayer, "Theoretical & numerical analyses reveal structural & functional stabilities of PEC devices are determined by mechanical fracture & softening of the protector occurred by bubbles & advances to develop semi-permanent electro- & photoelectro-chemical devices."
H2 Solar Waste 2.8. 15 Feb 2024, ScienceDirect, Solar-driven (photo)electrochemical devices for green hydrogen production and storage: Working principles and design, "This review presents the first exhaustive overview and critical examination of various laboratory-scale prototype setups that attempt to combine both the hydrogen production and storage processes in a single unit."
H2 Solar Waste 2.9. 15 Feb 2024, ScienceDirect, Solar to H2 conversion by a 25 cm2-photoelectrochemical cell with upscaled components, "Adopted architecture allowed for the reduction of bias-potential from −1.23 V, generally employed to investigate PEC cells, up to −0.6/-0.4 V. 20 h-durability tests demonstrated resistance to corrosion plus constant photocurrent."
H2 Bio Waste 2.10. 10 Feb 2024, MDPI, Hydrogen from Waste Gasification, "Biomass via waste products & H2O have been considered as an alternative source of H2 production by thermolysis, biolysis, photolysis, and electrolysis. H2 produced by valorization of waste materials provides both a clean energy vector and sustainable waste management."
H2 Photocatalyst Solar 2.11. 07 Feb 2024, Nature, Preparation of a polyaniline/ZnO-NPs composite for the visible-light-driven H2 generation, "Here a H2O splitting system with optimum efficiency achieved through using various amounts of PANI in “ZnO-NPs/PANI” composites, & ZnO nanoparticles & de-doped PANI were synthesized via the Beek method and McDiarmid procedure."
H2 Photocatalyst Solar 2.12. 07 Feb 2024, ACS, Unveiling Valence State-Dependent Photocatalytic Water Splitting Activity and Photocathodic Behavior in Visible Light-Active Iridium-Doped BaTiO3, "The effect of electron occupancy change between Ir4+ (t2g5 eg0) and Ir3+ (t2g6 eg0) and their energetic positions within the band gap is found to significantly influence H2 generation."
H2 Photocatalyst Solar 2.13. 01 Feb 2024, ScienceDirect, Application of graphdiyne for promote efficient photocatalytic HER, "Here a detailed description of the unique structural properties & adjustable bandgap of graphdiyne, plus a detailed review of the modification strategies of graphdiyne based catalysts for photocatalytic HER, including titanium based photocatalysts,"
h2 Photocatalyst Solar 2.14. 30 Jan 2024, ACS, Nanocomposite Marvels: Unveiling Breakthroughs in Photocatalytic H2O Splitting for Enhanced H2 Evolution, "Here innovations in photocatalysts for H2 development, photocatalyst selection criteria & photocatalytic modifications to improve photocatalytic activity was examined as well as mechanisms & thermodynamics."
h2 Photocatalyst Solar 2.15. 30 Jan 2024, MDPI, The Use of Copper-Based Delafossite to Improve Hydrogen Production Performance: A Review, "This review paper reports on the use of Delafossite as a layer between perovskite-based solar cells to improve hydrogen production efficiency and make the process easier and delves into the possible breakthroughs in sustainable energy generation."
h2 Photocatalyst Solar 2.16. 26 Jan 2024, ACS, Nature-Inspired Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production with a Flavin Photosensitizer, "In this paper, we intend to introduce flavins as metal-free organic photosensitizers for photoinduced reduction processes. Specifically, a flavin photosensitizer was employed for the photocatalytic evolution of hydrogen gas in aqueous media."
h2 Photocatalyst Solar 2.17. 26 Jan 2024, SciOpen, Rationally Construction of Atomic-Precise Interfacial Charge Transfer Channel and Strong Build-In Electric Field in Nanocluster-Based Z-scheme Heterojunctions with Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production, "Herein, a Z-scheme NC-based heterojunction with strong internal electric field is constructed."
h2 Photocatalyst Solar 2.18. 24 Jan 2024, Nature, Overcoming small-bandgap charge recombination in visible and NIR-light-driven HER by engineering the polymer photocatalyst structure, "Here, we present a series of ITIC- and BTIC-based polymeric photocatalysts for HER under visible and NIR light, without the need for combination or hybridization with other materials."
h2 Photocatalyst Solar 2.19. 23 Jan 2024, Nature, Sugars induced exfoliation of porous graphitic carbon nitride for efficient hydrogen evolution in photocatalytic water-splitting reaction, "The studied materials were extensively characterized by microscopic and spectroscopic techniques, allowing us to propose a reaction mechanism for hydrogen evolution during water-splitting over fructose_6h."
h2 Photocatalyst Solar 2.20. 19 Jan 2024, Nature, Ultrabroadband absorptive refractory plasmonics for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution reactions, "Here this novel ultrabroadband absorber has potential use in advanced photocatalytic HER applications, providing a sustainable and cost-effective route for hydrogen generation from solar energy."

FC PEM 3.2. 02 Mar 2024, ScienceDirect, Sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification in predictive modeling of proton-exchange membrane electrolytic cells, "Here we implement a fast 1D python solver, which solves a system of six nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs) in PEMECs."
FC PEM 3.3. 27 Feb 2024, ACS, Advanced Patterned Membranes for Efficient Alkaline Membrane Electrolyzers, "The prepared membrane shows a 39% improvement in water permeability and a 23% enhancement in the electrochemical surface area compared with a flat membrane with the same catalyst loading and unprecedented current density of 17.5 A cm–2@2.0 V."
FC PEM 3.4. 19 Feb 2024, ScienceDirect, Poly(p-phenylene)-based membranes with cerium for chemically durable polymer electrolyte fuel cell membranes, "Results demonstrate that the proton conductivity of the pristine hydrocarbon membranes is superior to that of PFSA membranes, and the hydrogen crossover is significantly lower."
FC PEM 3.5. 18 Feb 2024, Nature, Dynamic accelerated stress test and coupled on-line analysis program to elucidate aging processes in proton exchange membrane fuel cells, "This program was able to age a commercial PEMFC to end-of-life in 1000 h, while providing an accurate picture of the aging processes involved."
PEM 3.6. 12 Feb 2024, ACS, Effects of Inhomogeneous Gas Diffusion Layer Properties on the Transportation Phenomenon and Performances of PEMFC, "Study revealed that excessive assembly stress can lead to carbon fiber breakage, affecting its transport performance & spatial arrangement of pores with a diameter below 0.175 nm was largely unaffected."
SOFC 3.7. 03 Feb 2024, Nature, Enhanced oxygen reduction reaction on caffeine-modified platinum single-crystal electrodes, "Caffeine is used as a capping agent and a structure directing agent for the preparation of well dispersed Pd–Au nanochain networks with unique structures, and enhances the ORR activity."
PEMFC 3.8. 02 Feb 2024, ACS, Metal–Support Interaction between Titanium Oxynitride & Pt Nanoparticles Enables Efficient Low-Pt-Loaded High-Performance Electrodes at Relevant OER Current Densities, "Here we report on a synergistic relationship between Pt nanoparticles and a titanium oxynitride support in the context of oxygen reduction reaction catalysis."
SOFC 3.9. 30 Jan 2024, Nature, A fast ceramic mixed OH−/H+ ionic conductor for low temperature fuel cells, "Here we show the discovery of mixed OH−/H+ conduction in ceramic materials. SrZr0.8Y0.2O3-δ exhibits a high ionic conductivity of approximately 0.01 S cm−1 at 90 °C in both water and wet air, which has been demonstrated by direct ammonia fuel cells."
PEM 3.10. 29 Jan 2024, ACS, Metal Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Production in Water Splitting, "Here we discuss the challenges that lie ahead and offer future perspectives on how to design functional and stable electrocatalysts for the HER in order to enable efficient hydrogen production by water-splitting electrolysis."
PEM 3.11. 17 Jan 2024, PHYS.ORG, Researchers develop a low-cost catalyst for green hydrogen production, "Here based on our study, we propose a dual-engineering strategy involving single atom Zn doping and the introduction of oxygen vacancies to balance high catalytic activity with stability during acidic OER."
PEM 3.12. 13 Jan 2024, Nature, Identifying the distinct roles of dual dopants in stabilizing the platinum-nickel nanowire catalyst for durable fuel cell, "Here we we systematically investigate the roles of Mo and Au dopants in stabilizing PtNi alloy catalysts based on the well-defined PtNi-based nanowires (NWs) model catalysts."
PEM 3.13. 11 Jan 2024, ACS, Morphology of Thin-Film Nafion on Carbon as an Analogue of Fuel Cell Catalyst Layers, "Here we demonstrate that neutron reflectometry measurements of silicon–Nafion interfaces are valuable for PEMFC performance predictions, as water uptake in the majority Nafion layers trends similarly with thickness, regardless of support material."
PEM 3.14. 11 Jan 2024, Nature, Effect of Plasma pretreatment and Graphene oxide ratios on the transport properties of PVA/PVP membranes for fuel cells, "Here a novel proton-conducting polymer electrolyte membrane mixture of polyvinyl alcohol/polyvinyl pyrrolidone (1:1) mixed with different ratios of graphene oxide (GO) & plasma-treated was successfully synthesized."
PEM 3.15. 10 Jan 2024, Nature, Machine-learning-accelerated design of high-performance platinum intermetallic nanoparticle fuel cell catalysts, "Introducing Cu/Ni into PtCo provides additional stabilization energy by inducing Co-Cu/Ni disorder, thus facilitating the ordering process and achieveing an improved tradeoff between specific activity and active surface area."
PEM 3.16. 02 Jan 2024, Nature, Tensile straining of iridium sites in manganese oxides for proton-exchange membrane water electrolysers, "Here we used cation exchange and a subsequent rapid annealing–cooling strategy to prepare a low-iridium electrocatalyst in which iridium atoms are localized at the surface Mn sites of tensile-strained manganese oxide (TS–Ir/MnO2)."
Aviation PEM 3.17. 27 Dec 2023, Nature, Experimental study and simulations of hydrogen cooling effectiveness for aviation PEM fuel cells, "Fuel cell temperature could be maintained within the set threshold in the model and the test rig, thus showing that controlling the fuel cell temperature via the hydrogen reactant flow is a viable alternative thermal management system."
PEM 3.18. 22 Dec 2023, ACS, Optimization of Flow Channels in a PEM Fuel Cell Based on a Multiobjective Evaluation, "This study shows that the nozzle effect in the channel enhances the mass transfer of PEMFC and improves water and thermal management, resulting in a reduction of liquid water by up to 35.8%."
SOFC 3.19. 18 Dec 2023, ACS, Co2MnO4/Ce0.8Tb0.2O2−δ Dual-Phase Membrane Material with High CO2 Stability and Enhanced Oxygen Transport for Oxycombustion Processes, "By activating the bulk membrane with a CMO/CTO porous catalytic layer we achieved oxygen flux of 0.25 mL·min–1·cm–2 for the 40CMO/60CTO (%vol), 680 μm-thick membrane at 850°C."
PEM Sn Ir 3.20. 15 Dec 2023, ACS, Influences of Nanostructures of Sn and Ir for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Water Electrolysis, "In this work, we have examined potential synergies of Ir and Sn for the OER in a PEM electrolyzer and two different material synthesis strategies were studied."

H2 Storage 4.1. 17 Feb 2024, MDPI, An Exploration of Safety Measures in H2 Refueling Stations: Delving into H2 Equipment and Technical Performance, "We explore several aspects including the sophisticated architecture of H2 dispensers, reliable leak-detection systems, emergency shut-off mechanisms, and the implementation of fire-suppression tactics."
H2 Storage 4.2. 31 Jan 2024, Nature, Experimentally validated design principles of heteroatom-doped-graphene-supported Ca single-atom materials for non-dissociative chemisorption solid-state H2 storage, "Design by first-principles calculations analysis & focused experimental verifications of heteroatom-doped-graphene-supported Ca single-atom carbon nanomaterials."
H2 Storage 4.3. 18 Jan 2024, MDPI, Computational Modeling of High-Speed Flow of Two-Phase Hydrogen through a Tube with Abrupt Expansion, "Here suitable values of the relaxation time parameter are determined by comparing numerical results with test data for high-speed two-phase hydrogen flows in a configuration involving a tube with sudden expansion, which is common in practical systems."
H2 Storage 4.4. 08 Jan 2024, Cygnet Texkimp, National Composites Centre commissions Cygnet Texkimp filament winding machine for new era of hydrogen vessel development, "Composites company Cygnet Texkimp has delivered a 4-axis filament winding machine to NCC to form part of a new state-of-the-art manufacturing and test facility for H2 transportation & storage."
H2 Storage 4.5. 02 Jan 2024, ScienceDirect, A review on the factors of liner collapse in type IV hydrogen storage vessels, "Hydrogen permeation and rapid decompression cause liner collapse in type IV tanks and increased permeability of polymeric liner increases chance of liner collapse. Correlation exists between thermo-mechanical properties of polymers and permeability."
TypeV H2 Storage 4.6. 01 Jan 2024, ScienceDirect, Review on linerless type V cryo-compressed hydrogen storage vessels: Resin toughening and hydrogen-barrier properties control, "Cryo-compressed hydrogen storage has significant advantages such as long dormancy, high safety factor, and rapid filling; thus, it is suitable for the energy supply of heavy-duty vehicles."
TypeIV H2 Storage 4.7. 07 Nov 2023, Forvia, FORVIA's leadership in H2 storage earns new contract in North America, "Type IV tanks are well suited for applications requiring higher pressure & more intensive use eg. truck applications. The polymer liner provides higher durability while providing up to 15% greater driving autonomy 30% lighter & supporting affordability & convenience."
H2 SIM Storage 4.8. 21 Oct 2023, Nature, Simulation and optimization of the impacts of metal-organic frameworks on the hydrogen adsorption using computational fluid dynamics & artificial neural networks, "This study is a step forward in improving the design of H2 tanks, which will facilitate hydrogen storage at low pressures close to ambient temperatures."
H2 Storage 4.9. 20 Oct 2023, MDPI, Thermodynamics of Reversible H2 Storage: Are Methoxy-Substituted Biphenyls Better through O2 Functionality?, "Here, a series of methoxy-substituted biphenyls & structural parent compounds were studied & absolute vapour pressures were measured using transpiration method & enthalpies of vaporisation/sublimation determined."
H2 Car Storage 4.10. 19 Oct 2023, MDPI, Hydrogen Storage as a Key Energy Vector for Car Transportation: A Tutorial Review, "This study serves as a guide for anyone wanting to undertake such a technology and to equip the reader with an advanced knowledge on H2 storage in H2 cars to stimulate further researches & yet more innovative applications for this highly interesting field."
H2 IET Storage 4.11. 16 Oct 2023, IET, Adaptively optimal energy management for integrated hydrogen energy systems, "H2 storage system consists of electrolysers, FCs, and H2 tanks and power is consumed by electrolysers to produce H2 stored in tanks. The long-distance transmission of H2 is a challenging task for the trans-region balance of clean energy."
H2 Nozzle Storage 4.12. 29 Sep 2023, Nature, Assessment of the impact of shaped nozzles installed inside the pipeline on the energy efficiency of compressed gas systems, "In this study, we introduce an overview of recent progress in improving the hydrogen storage performance of MgH2 by the addition of titanium-based additives, which are one of the important groups of additives."
H2 Nozzle Storage 4.13. 05 Aug 2023, MDPI, Effect of Ti-Based Additives on the Hydrogen Storage Properties of MgH2: A Review, "In this study, we introduce an overview of recent progress in improving the hydrogen storage performance of MgH2 by the addition of titanium-based additives, which are one of the important groups of additives."
LH2 Storage 4.14. 19 Jul 2023, MDPI, The Effect of Liquid Hydrogen Tank Size on Self-Pressurization and Constant-Pressure Venting, "here the unsteady thermal modeling of cryogenic tanks with liquid hydrogen. Considering the liquid and vapor phases in the tank as two nodes with averaged properties, a lumped-element method of low computational cost is developed."
Forvia Type IV Storage 4.15. 13 Jun 2023, Forvia, FORVIA starts deliveries of hydrogen tanks from first mass production plant in France, "The Forvia plant will also produce the Hydrogen Type IV storage tanks that make up the Large-Scale Hydrogen Storage Solution which will be delivered to AirFlow for distribution and storage application."
MDPI HE Type IV Storage 4.16. 17 May 2023, MDPI, Preventing Hydrogen Embrittlement: The Role of Barrier Coatings for the Hydrogen Economy, "In this review, the state of the art with respect to hydrogen permeation is discussed for a variety of coatings. Al2O3, TiAlN and TiC appear to be the most promising candidates from a large pool of ceramic materials."
Luxfer LH2 Type IV Storage 4.17. 03 May 2023, Luxfer, Luxfer Gas Cylinders Introduces G-Stor Go H2 Cylinder with Type 4 Technology, "The G-Stor Go H2 features a proven interface resulting in minimal permeation & certified, cost-effective H2 storage solution ideal for fuel cell transit buses, heavy-duty trucks, vans, bulk gas transport, boats, and trains."
SwRI LH2 Storage 4.18. 03 Apr 2023, SwRI, SwRI EXPANDS HYDROGEN ENERGY RESEARCH CAPABILITIES WITH NEW LIQUID HYDROGEN STORAGE TANK, "The SwRI liquid hydrogen storage tank has a capacity of 17,000 gallons (64,345L) and will provide the Institute with a cost-effective, reliable supply of hydrogen for its multifaceted research initiatives."
WsRI LMRC 4.19. 28 Mar 2023, SwRI, SwRI CREATES INNOVATIVE, EFFICIENT HYDROGEN COMPRESSOR FOR FCEV REFUELING STATIONS, "LMRC coatings protect magnets from hydrogen incursion and embrittlement, while improved valve designs minimize leaks. It also utilizes a ceramic piston to minimize heat expansion and lower stress on its seal."
Type V Review 4.20. 15 Mar 2023, ScienceDiirect, A review of Type V composite pressure vessels and automated fibre placement based manufacturing, "This article provides a critical review of the existing work on both Type IV and Type V pressure vessels published from 2000 until present as well as the challenges facing Type V vessels."

Stadler FLIRT H2 5.1. 21 Feb 2024, Stadler, A CLEAN FUTURE ON TRACK: THE FLIRT H2 MODEL, "The FLIRT H2 train is a single-decker, lightweight aluminium model that can be built in two- to four-car train compositions. Just like the traditional FLIRT train, the series-produced FLIRT H₂ model can be flexibly and individually adapted to the needs of each client and route network."
Daimler Linde 5.2. 07 Feb 2024, Daimler/Linde, Safe, Fast and Simple: Daimler Truck and Linde Set New Standard for Liquid Hydrogen Refueling Technology, "Daimler Truck and Linde Engineering present a jointly developed refueling technology: Compared to gas H2, subcooled LH2 allows higher storage density, greater range, faster refueling, lower costs & superior energy efficiency."
IEEE 5.3. 30 Jan 2024, IEEE, A new traction system with asymmetrical six-phase permanent magnet synchronous motors for hydrogen trains, "The proposed traction system has two three-phase inverters feeding separately the six-phase machine and controlled to achieve optimal power sharing between the FC and the battery."
Alstrom 5.4. 10 Jan 2024, Symbio, StackPack 75 covers a wide range of automotive applications, medium duty trucks and city buses, "StackPack 75 is fully compliant with applicable regulations and the ISO 26262 standard. POWER (net1) - 75 kW; STACK POWER DENSITY - 4,9 kW/liter; DURABILITY - 20,000 hours (Heavy Duty); 7,000 hours (Light Duty); WEIGHT - 80 Kg"
Alstrom 5.5. 06 Jan 2024, Alstom Coradia Stream H, Green traction solutions for regional trains, "Coradia Stream H is a fuel cell-powered regional train that enables clean and sustainable service designed to ensure excellent performance. Fueling trains with hydrogen produced from renewable energies eliminates emissions of greenhouse gases."
China H2 IC 5.6. 14 Dec 2023, ACS, Research and Development of Hydrogen-Fueled Internal Combustion Engines in China, "A review and analysis of developmental research of HICE with optimization control method of combustion process, mechanism & suppression method of abnormal combustion, influence regularity of H2 injection parameters & H2 injection modes on H2–air mixture."
Ca H2 NO 5.7. 12 Dec 2023, Nature, California’s zero-emission vehicle adoption brings air quality benefits yet equity gaps persist, "Here, we quantify ZEV adoption at the census tract level in California from 2015 to 2020 and project it to 2035 when all new passenger vehicles sold are expected to be ZEVs."
Stadler H2 Trains 5.8. 16 Oct 2023, Stadler, MORE HYDROGEN TRAINS FOR THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA, "Stadler design of the battery fuel cell train is changing the US rolling stock industry for alternative propulsion systems, combining Stadler top quality and reliability to drive innovation transforming railways in America."
BMW iX5 5.9. 16 Oct 2023, Nature, Development of a mobile laboratory system in hydrogen fuel cell buses and evaluation of the performance for COVID-19 RT-PCR testing, "In this study, we evaluated the performance of a mobile laboratory system on HFC buses by focusing on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for COVID-19."
Hyundai Bus 5.10. 06 Oct 2023, Hyundai Iveco, Iveco Group and Hyundai Motor Company unveil a new hydrogen city bus at Busworld trade show in Brussels, "This HTWO Fuel cell system-based Hydrogen Hyundai-Iveco bus includes four tanks offering a combined storage of 7.8 kg of H2 and one 69 kWh battery pack by FPT Industrial."
BMW iX5 5.11. 14 Sep 2023, BMW, The BMW iX5 Hydrogen proves its suitability for everyday use even at high temperatures, "Despite harsh below-zero temperatures the development team based in Munich paid particular attention to the functionality of all electrical systems and the constant provision of cooling performance. The result: no vulnerabilities whatsoever."
Toyota H2 Fuel Cell 5.12. 08 Sep 2023, Toyota, It is here! Toyota H2 fuel cell electric Hilux prototype, "H2 is stored in three high-pressure fuel tanks, giving the prototype an expected driving range of >600 km. The hybrid battery, which stores electricity produced on-board by the fuel cell, is positioned in the rear load deck, avoiding loss of cabin space."
First Hydrogen FCEV 5.13. 14 Aug 2023, First Hydrogen, FIRST HYDROGEN’S HYDROGEN-FUEL-CELL POWERED VEHICLE HAS AN UNBEATABLE RANGE, "These FCEV vehicles are being trialled with an initial 16 fleet operators in the United Kingdom. At the same time, the company has launched its bespoke vehicle design phase which will develop its fleet of proprietary zero-emission vehicles."
Pininfarina NamX HUV 5.14. 06 Jul 2023, Pininfarina, NamX - A futuristic SUV with solid performances, designed with style, "Collaboration between NAMX & PININFARINA, the design of the HUV is part of a large-scale industrial and technological project whose ambition is to reconcile human mobility and environmental preservation thanks to green hydrogen."
China H2 Railway 5.15. 19 Jun 2023, Railway Technology, CRRC unveils “world’s most powerful” hydrogen train, "China’s state railway company has unveiled “Ningdong”, the “world’s most powerful” H2-powered locomotive. According to China Railway Rolling Stock Corporation (CRRC), the new engine can run for up to 190 hours and takes two hours to refuel its 270kg capacity of LH2."
Toyota Crown FCEV 5.16. 13 Jun 2023, Toyota, Toyota unveils new technology that will change the future of cars, "In the area of electrification, we will continue to pursue a “multi-pathway approach,” including the introduction of optimal powertrains for each region. In the area of intelligence, we will also promote initiatives to expand our connection with society, such as Woven City."
Solaris Urbino 18 5.17. 16 May 2023, Tevva, 7.5T HYDROGEN ELECTRIC, FREEDOM FROM RANGE ANXIETY, "Highlights of Tevva 7.5T H2 Electric truck: Customer availability in 2023; Range up to 435km; Body & payload allowance of 2718kg; Platform capacity: 16 Pallets (15 Euro Pallets); Battery charge 90%: 5 hrs; Range extender; H2 refuelling time: 10 mins."
Toyota FCEV Truck 5.18. 09 May 2023, Toyota, Hydrogen fuel cell trucks to decarbonise Toyota logistics in Europe, "Fuel cell trucks also have a key role in the growth of the wider European hydrogen ecosystem, strongly supporting transport decarbonization and an ecological energy transition. Heavy-duty vehicles are critical in generating a healthy supply and demand dynamic for hydrogen."
Hyperion XP-1 5.19. 03 Apr 2023, Hyperion, XP-1 Hydrogen Electric Hypercar, "XP-1 HYPERCELL: Fuel Cell module includes high-efficiency fuel cell aerospace architecture utilizing membranes coated in an industry-best catalyst, capable of increasing engine life and H2 storage technology from NASA that stores more H2 in less space than ever before."
Solaris Urbino 18 5.20. 27 Mar 2023, Solaris, Solaris Urbino 18 hydrogen bus, "Urbino 18 Hydrogen bus is a cutting-edge fuel cell that acts as a miniature H2 power plant. H2 is transformed by the fuel cell into electricity which is then transferred to the driveline. Solaris’s new vehicle doesn’t feature a conventional engine compartment as it has been equipped with a modular drive system."

Airbus Aviation 6.1. 31 Jan 2024, Airbus, Airbus, Avinor, SAS, Swedavia and Vattenfall pave the way for H2 aviation in Sweden and Norway, "Airbus, Avinor, SAS and Vattenfall. Swedavia, Avinor and SAS already have established successful collaborations in fossil-free aviation & it is therefore exciting that Airbus, with its extensive knowledge of H2-powered aircraft through its ZEROe initiative."
Sirius Aviation 6.2. 14 Jan 2024, Sirius Aviation, SIRIUS AVIATION TO UNVEIL HYDROGEN-POWERED BUSINESS JET, "Sirius Jet is a fully electric, zero-emissions, vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft designed to blend the aerodynamics of a jet with the versatility of airplanes and helicopters, powered by a hydrogen-electric ducted fan propulsion system."
Heven drones 6.3. 27 Nov 2023, HevenDrones, Hydrogen-powered drones could fly longer, farther, "Heven Drones' H2D200 can carry up to 10lbs — twice what a typical electric drone of its size can carry & has a potential range of 317 miles, with up to four hours of flight time. The H2D250 can carry up to 22lbs and has a potential range of 466 miles, with up to eight hours of flight time."
Airbus Condor 6.4. 16 Nov 2023, Airbus, Contrail-chasing Blue Condor makes Airbus’ first full hydrogen-powered flight, "The modified glider at the centre of Airbus UpNext’s hydrogen contrail-studying experiment, Blue Condor, made its first hydrogen-powered flight over Nevada US 8 Nov. The flight was Airbus first ever to use hydrogen as the sole fuel source."
Scramjet nozzles 6.5. 01 Nov 2023, Nature, Application of multi-extruded fuel injectors for mixing enhancement of hydrogen gas at scramjet engine: computational study, "The findings reveal that the use of extruded nozzles and inner air jet can significantly improve fuel mixing and distribution by enhancing the vortices between injectors."
Honeywell Aerospace 6.6. 15 Sep 2023, NREL, Honeywell Aerospace and NREL Partner To Scale Novel Hydrogen Fuel Storage Solution for Drones, "This prototype supports the commercialization of a novel cartridge-based hydrogen fuel storage solution for UAVs. The project, Fuel Additives for Solid Hydrogen (FLASH) Carriers in Electric Aviation, is a new hydrogen carrier technology."
H2FLY Germany LH2 6.7. 07 Sep 2023, H2FLY Germany, H2FLY And Partners Complete World’s First Piloted Flight of Liquid Hydrogen Powered Electric Aircraft, "The aircraft uses LH2 to power a H2-electric fuel cell system that powered the aircraft for the entire flight which lays the foundation for long-range flight with LH2 doubling the range to 1,500km compared to gaseous H2."
Aviation LH2 6.8. 23 Jun 2023, ACS, Liquid Hydrogen: A Mirage or Potent Solution for Aviation’s Climate Woes?, "In this study, we focus our investigation on which fuel supply chains and conversion technologies can lower the WTWa climate impact of commercial aircraft. We do not, however, analyze issues of cost or scalability."
Airbus 6.9. 20 Jun 2023, Airbus, At Airbus, hydrogen power gathers pace, "Airbus is also actively preparing a future H2C demonstrator with GE and Safran joint venture CFM International. The goal is to mature a flightworthy, fully integrated hydrogen engine and aircraft, using our own A380 test aircraft as a flying test bed."
H2FLY Germany 6.10. 22 May 2023, HyliumDRONE FLIES FOR FIVE HOURS WITH HYDROGEN FUEL CELL, "The drone uses a hydrogen fuel cell to provide electricity to run the drone’s motors and other electronic systems. Thanks to the energy density advantage of hydrogen versus lithium batteries, the flight time can be greatly extended compared to conventional battery-only drones."
GKN Germany 6.11. 21 Apr 2023, GKN, Liquid hydrogen-fueled UAS demonstrated, "GKN developed integrated fuel tank design and distribution solutions, including vaporizing and cryogenic conditioning of the liquid hydrogen. Fuel system performance was verified by coupling it with a PEM fuel cell stack, representative of the type that could be installed on a future zero-emission aircraft."
Plug Power UAV 6.12. 04 Apr 2023, Plug Power High Specific Energy Means More Time in the Air for a Fuel Cell UAV, "Hydrogen fuel cells for aerospace provide high specific energies (Wh/kg) for longer-duration flights and come with the added benefit of fast fueling, allowing customers to maximize the utilization of these assets and leading in Fuel Cell Solutions for aerospace."
Universal H2 6.13. 17 Mar 2023, Wingcopter/ZAL, Hydrogen power for delivery drones: Wingcopter and ZAL GmbH start joint development, "A solution is being developed that will fit into the existing technical ecosystem of the Wingcopter W198 delivery drone while preserving the characteristic flight capabilities of the Wingcopter."
Hylium  Industries 6.14. 16 Mar 2023, Hylium Industries, Hylium Industries develops creative technologies on compact hydrogen liquefaction and ultra light hydrogen storage through R&D programs, "Hylium Industries' HyliumX is a hydrogen fuel cell powered drone operating on liquefied hydrogen. The HyliumX has a flight endurance of up to five hours."
6.15. 09 Mar 2023, ISS Aerospace, High Endurance Hydrogen Fuel Cell UAVs, "ISS Aerospace has created a first-of-its-kind hydrogen fuel cell powered UAV, capable of up to 120 minutes flight time. Using ultra-light carbon composite fuel cylinders from AMS Composite Cylinders, Sensus is the first off-the-shelf UAV product of its kind."
Airbus 6.16. 04 Mar 2023, Airbus, The next frontier in alternative-propulsion technology, "At Airbus, we believe hydrogen is one of the most promising zero-emission technologies to reduce aviation’s climate impact. This is why we consider hydrogen to be an important technology pathway to achieve our ambition of bringing a zero-emission commercial aircraft to market by 2035."
6.17. 14 Feb 2023, MDPI, Preliminary Design and Simulation of a Thermal Management System with Integrated Secondary Power Generation Capability for a Mach 8 Aircraft Concept Exploiting Liquid Hydrogen, "This aircraft is conceived to carry 300 passengers over antipodal routes up to around 18,000 km, flying at an average altitude of 30–35 km at Mach 8."
Universal H2 6.18. 08 Feb 2023, Universal H2, Universal H2 Completes First Taxi Tests and Is Granted Experimental Airworthiness Certificate by the Federal Aviation Administration "The Dash 8-300 flying testbed has a megawatt-class H2 fuel cell powertrain installed in one of its nacelles. ATR 72-600 regional airliner is expected to be certified and in commercial passenger service starting in 2025."
ZeroAvia 6.19. 21 Jan 2023, ZeroAvia, The future of flight is renewable H2 H2-electric propulsion is the only way to scale sustainable aviation for commercial use. With up to 30 times higher specific energy and lower cycling costs than lithium-ion batteries, with advantages over all other solutions, H2-electric powertrains are the only viable, scalable solution for zero-emission aviation."
H3 Dynamics 6.20. 17 Jan 2023, H3 Dynamics & Hylium, Progressing Liquid Hydrogen-Electric Flight Capabilities for Unmanned Aircraft "H3 Dynamics and Hylium Industries are combining strengths and capabilities to achieve a 3x flight duration improvement over pressurized H2 systems, a 10x performance improvement over batteries."

Kia EV9 7.1. 12 Feb 2024, Janes, World Defence Show 2024: Kia Motors presents hydrogen fuel-cell all-terrain vehicle "The EV9 MIL Concept has a gross weight of 3,250 kg, a length of 5 m, a height and width of 1.9 m, and a ground clearance of 220 m, cruising range 480 km, with the vehicle being able to navigate gradients of 60%, an approach angle of 60°, and a departure angle of 25°."
SkyCorp H2 7.2. 11 Dec 2023, SKYCORP Technologies, e-Drone Zero "The e-Drone Zero is a surveillance-focused H2 drone. As a multirotor configuration, it is nimble, compact, resilient & capable of acting off-grid as necessary. Extended Flight Times – 90-120 min; Refueling 2-5 min; On-board Processing – Support for AI; EO-IR Payload; Comms – Radio/LTE/5G/Satcom."
Airgas H2 7.3. 10 Nov 2023, Airgas, Airgas Awarded the 2024 Military Friendly® Gold Recognition Employer Designation "Airgas, an Air Liquide company, has earned the Gold Level Recognition and been named by VIQTORY to the 2024 Military Friendly® Employers list for the second year in a row, following three consecutive years with Silver Level Designation."
IC Army H2 7.4. 06 Sep 2023, Infinite Composites, INFINITE COMPOSITES SIGNS $1.6MUSD ARMY CONTRACT TO DEVELOP CONFORMABLE FUEL TANKS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE "The DoD has created several initiatives to increase funding to develop new and improved hydrogen technologies for military vehicles including aircraft, ground support, and marine applications."
Saab Sabertooth AUV 7.5. 04 Sep 2023, Naval Technology, Recharge AUVs without a mothership: US trials hydrogen fuel cell "Saab AUV is being equipped with the Subsea Supercharger from Teledyne Energy Systems & the fuel cell uses technology to extend the AUV’s mission duration, and by reducing the requirement to reconnect with a surface vessel it also reduces the risk and the cost of operations."
Cellula Robotics XLUUV 7.6. 30 Aug 2023, Cellula Robotics, Cellula Robotics Ltd. Initiates Sea Trials of its Solus-XR System, Marking a Significant Project Milestone and Demonstrating Commitment to Cutting-Edge XLUUV Technology "Solus-XR XLUUV has been meticulously crafted to attain unparalleled operational ranges, reaching an impressive 5,000 kilometers."
H2 DHS Rescue Truck 7.7. 17 Aug 2023, US DHS, Feature Article: Using Hydrogen to Power Disaster Relief "The H2Rescue truck was built by Accelera by Cummins under a USACE ERDC-CERL cooperative agreement with funding and design assistance from S&T, the DoE, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, U.S. Army Ground Vehicle Power and Mobility, & USNRL."
H2 GM Defense 7.8. 27 Jun 2023, GM Defense, Hydrotech Fuel Cell Technology "The HYDROTEC Fuel Cell Power Cube is at the core of every GM fuel cell product. These power systems transform electrified systems into fuel cell technology rapidly. GM Defense can leverage FCPC to rapidly deploy fuel cell capabilities to enhance warfighter capability and support mission use cases."
H2 Defence Hubs 7.9. 27 May 2023, ScienceDirect, Green energy hubs for the military that can also support the civilian mobility sector with green hydrogen "Coupling the civil sector with H2 storage in military renewable energy source (RES) hubs can facilitate a green transition of the civilian and military sectors by integrating RESs at lower cost."
India H2 Defence 7.10. 24 Mar 2023, Indian Aerospace and Defence Bulletin, Green H2 Energy: The Next Big Step For Indian Armed Forces "The Green H2 Mission recently announced by the state is poised to establish New Delhi as a hub for this eco-friendly fuel in India. This fuel will be produced entirely within India, eliminating the need for the country to rely on external sources for energy supply."
US DIU 7.11. 17 Mar 2023, Hypersonix, Australia's Hydrogen Powered Hypersonix Selected by US Defence Innovation Unit for Test Vehicle "Hypersonix DART AE (Additive Engineering) vehicle makes significant use of 3D-printing and is powered by a hydrogen-fuelled SPARTAN scramjet engine, capable of flying non-ballistic flight patterns at speeds of Mach 5 to Mach 7."
DOE Nuclear H2 7.12. 07 Mar 2023, USA Department of Energy, Nine Mile Point Begins Clean H2 Production "DOE supported the construction and installation of a low-temperature electrolysis system at the Nine Mile Point nuclear power plant that leverages the facility’s existing H2 storage system, using electricity generated at the plant to split H20 into hydrogen and oxygen."
GM Defence ISV 7.13. 21 Feb 2023, GM Defence, Delivering the Future of Power on the Battlefield "HYDROTEC fuel cell power cube is designed to be easily integrated into a variety of vehicle platforms. HYDROTEC has been field tested with thousands of run hours and proven performance and underpinning technology of GM’s Mobile Power Generation System."
HevenDrones UAV H2D55 7.14. 14 Feb 2023, HevenDrones, HevenDrones launched its first hydrogen-powered drone for defence and commercial use, the H2D55 "With 5-times greater energy efficiency than Li battery drones, H2D55 is capable of flying for 100 min with 7kg. H2D55 is programmed with a control system that contains multiple gyroscopes & supporting algorithms to extend stable flight."
TKMS Fuel Cell XLUUV 7.15. 08 Feb 2023, NavalNews, World’s Largest Submarine Drone Being Built In Germany "German shipbuilder TKMS (Thyssenkrupp Marine Systems) is preparing to start construction of their MUM (Modifiable Underwater Mothership) underwater drone. The prototype will be powered by hydrogen fuel cell AIP (air independent power) propulsion and generate about 80 kW power."
Naval News H2 7.16. 05 Feb 2023, Infinity, Infinity Fuel Cell and Hydrogen, Inc., announces first commercial contract for its air-independent H2 fuel cell power system for use in unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV’s) "The primary advantage of H2 fuel cell power in larger UUVs is the ability to extend underwater time to weeks or even months."
Naval News H2 7.17. 18 Nov 2022, Naval Technology, Environmental sustainability innovation: Analysis of Leading companies in hydrogen fuel cells for the aerospace and defence industry, "Within the emerging innovation stage, hydrogen fuel cells, and fuel cells for aircraft are disruptive technologies that are in the early stages of application and should be tracked closely."
SFC 7.18. 31 Oct 2022, SFC Energy, Reliable fuel cell solutions, "Up to 80 % weight can be saved with SFC fuel cells. Therefore, soldiers can equip themselves with the minimum of batteries and extend the duration of the mission having saved the weight and volume."
EDA 7.19. 11 Oct 2022, European Defence Agency, Consultation forum explores hydrogen technologies for green defence, "The EDA organised its first CF SEDSS III thematic workshop on hydrogen in October 2022. The primary scope of the workshop was to explore the opportunities for decarbonising the defence sector using clean hydrogen and fuel cell technologies."
Bumhan UUV propulsion H2 fuel cell 7.20. 21 Sep 2022, Bumhan Technologies, Bumhan Showcases H2 Fuel Cells For South Korea’s ASWUUV "Development of anti-submarine warfare unmanned underwater vehicle (ASWUUV), for surveillance and reconnaissance around theater of operations where the manned vehicle cannot conduct." Bumhan fuel cell technology for prolonged underwater operations.

Yanmaha Outboards 8.1. 14 Feb 2024, Yamaha, YAMAHA DEVELOPS HYDROGEN FUEL SYSTEM WITH ROUSH AND REGULATOR MARINE, HYDROGEN OUTBOARD UNVEILED AT MIAMI INTERNATIONAL BOAT SHOW "Yamaha, Regulator and Roush displayed the boat hull, fuel system and outboard to demonstrate how hydrogen could work as a possible fuel source in a marine environment."
Yanmar 8.2. 09 Jan 2024, Yanmar, Development of Hydrogen-Fueled 4-Stroke Engine Underway for Zero Emission Vessels "Yanmar has embarked on the development of a hydrogen-fueled 4-stroke high-speed engine for power generation for coastal vessels in Japan as part of the Nippon Foundation’s zero emission ship demonstration experiment."
Teco 2030 Fuel Cell 8.3. 30 Nov 2023, Teco 2030 Fuel Cell, TECO Marine Fuel Cell System for heavy duty marine applications "Teco 2030 Fuel Cell modular system design gives new flexibility to newbuild vessels with advanced fuel conditioning system, enabling operations on compressed and liquid H2, ammonia, methanol and other H2 based carriers."
Yanmar Maritime H2 8.4. 09 Nov 2023, Yanmar Power Technology Co., Ltd, Yanmar Makes First Delivery of Maritime Hydrogen Fuel Cell System to Hybrid Passenger Ship "When running solely on the hydrogen fuel cell system and batteries, the ship creates zero emissions, with notable reductions in power source vibrations and noise, and the elimination of exhaust gas odors."
Three Gorges Hydrogen Boat No.1 8.5. 12 Oct 2023, Three Gorges Hydrogen Boat No.1, China’s first hydrogen ship sets sail in Three Gorges area "Powered by a 500kW hydrogen fuel cell, the ship was developed by a group of companies, including the China State Shipbuilding Corporation, China Yangtze Power Corporation and Jianglong Shipbuilding, and the Wuhan Changjiang Ship Design Institute."
Norway Norled H2 8.6. 09 Oct 2023, Norled / Ballard, World’s first liquid-powered hydrogen ship, MF Hydra, is powered by Ballard’s fuel cells "The MF Hydra, owned by one of Norway’s leading ferry and express boat operators, Norled AS, is the first commercial passenger and car ferry fueled by liquid hydrogen. Powered by Ballard's FCwave™ 200kw fuel cell modules."
ABB Maritime H2 8.7. 21 Sep 2023, ABB, ABB to power Samskip’s new hydrogen-fueled container vessels "Hydrogen fuel cell technology is considered as one of the most promising solutions to support shipping industry’s decarbonization agenda, with the potential to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase energy efficiency."
H2C RIB H2 8.8. 13 Sep 2023, RINA, HYDROGEN PROPULSION EASY AS H2C FOR DUTCH RIB "Students conducted a feasibility study, leading to the development of a proof-of-concept demo RIB, equipped with hydrogen, a fuel cell, a battery and an electric motor. This powertrain was then tested in a sloop. A further prototype was developed, which later underwent testing in the Port of Den Helder."
DNV LH2 8.9. 06 Sep 2023, HC-DNV, Moss Maritime Reaches Important Milestone – Approval In Principle For LH2, Liquified Hydrogen, Carrier Containment System From DNV "Moss Maritime has been granted an Approval in Principle from the classification society DNV for a containment system for ship transport of LH2 & ship transport of liquefied hydrogen."
H2 CAS 8.10. 10 Jul 2023, IEEE, Intelligent Dynamic Collision Avoidance Strategy of H2 Fuel Cell Unmanned Ship via Improved Fusion Dynamic Window Method "The safety field obstacle model of obstacle ships is explored to improve the obstacle collection of speed obstacle method, so that the collision avoidance process of H2 Fuel Cell Unmanned Ship can retain more feasible paths."
SWITCH Maritime H2 8.11. 26 Jun 2023, SWITCH Maritime, SWITCH Maritime is building the first fleet of zero-emissions vessels in North America "SWITCH’s flagship zero-emissions vessel, the Sea Change, is a 75-passenger ferry powered by H2 fuel cells and batteries. The vessel is substantially complete, entering operational sea trials at All American Marine shipyard in Bellingham, WA."
MDPI Marine H2 8.12. 19 Jun 2023, MDPI, A power allocation strategy for fuel cell ship considering fuel cell performance difference "In response to the deficiencies of the previous studies, a two-layer control-based power allocation strategy is proposed in this paper, which takes into account the performance differences among fuel cells."
Corvus Energy Marine Fuel Cell 8.13. 08 Jun 2023, Corvus Energy, Corvus Energy Pelican Fuel Cell System "The Corvus Pelican Fuel Cell System (FCS) combines well-proven fuel cell technology from world leader, Toyota, with an inherently gas safe design, making it one of the safest and most advanced marine fuel cell systems ever developed."
Ballard Maritime H2 8.14. 31 May 2023, Ballard, PoweredByBallard: The first hydrogen-powered vessels set sail "Powered by Ballard’s fuel cell modules, the first vessels to embark on their maiden voyages were Norled’s MF Hydra - the world’s first liquid hydrogen-powered ferry - operating in Norway; FPS Waal, a retrofitted cargo vessel expected in service on the Rhine River in Holland later 2023."
ACUA Ocean Hylium 8.15. 04 Apr 2023, ACUA Ocean / Hylium, Ocean monitoring and protection - hydrogen powered H-USV "The hydrogen powered ACUA Ocean MASS is designed to last up to 40-60 days offshore at 4 knots, and with our 24/7 monitoring and operating system we can vastly reduce the turnaround time on crew change and equipment maintenance."
RH2IWER Finland 8.16. 23 Mar 2023, Horizon Europe, Renewable Hydrogen for Inland Waterway Emission Reduction "The main aim of RH2IWER is to create a solid basis for the acceleration of hydrogen fuel cell powered vessels in inland waterway shipping by demonstrating six commercially operated vessels."
OceanWorld IMOCA yacht 8.17. 03 Mar 2023, OceanWorld, CLEANTECH ACCELERATOR Developing the world’s first green hydrogen race yacht to compete in transatlantic and around the world ocean races with zero emissions "A new partnership agreed with the Government of Jersey following the announcement of the world’s first hydrogen IMOCA yacht construction in January."
PowerCell Norway Ferry 8.18. 03 Mar 2023, PowerCell, PowerCell signs agreement for deliveries to Norwegian state ferries valued at EUR 19.2 million "PowerCell will deliver its Marine System 200, which enables the ferries to produce approximately 13 MW of power in total. The ferries are powered by green hydrogen and reduce CO2 emissions by 26,500 tonnes per year.."
TECO 2030 8.19. 17 Feb 2023, MDPI, Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Power Plants Fuelled by Hydrogen for Improving Sustainability in Shipping: State of the Art and Review on Active Projects "Presented is an extensive review on maritime hydrogen PEMFCs, outlining the state of the art and future trends for hydrogen storage and bunkering, powertrain, and regulations."
TECO 2030 8.20. 10 Feb 2023 TECO 2030 Marine Fuel Cell "TECO Marine Fuel Cell System 400 kW PEM Module is specifically for heavy duty marine application includes Dynamic response time like a large diesel engine; has modular design, enabling system configuration in megawatt scale and is based on 20 years of Fuel Cell development experience by AVL."

NASA H2 9.1. 29 Jan 2024, NASA, NASA’s Moon Shot Launched Commercial Fuel Cell Industry - Agency’s technology development prepared fuel cells for tomorrow’s renewable energy grids "NASA started investing in fuel cell technology in the 1960s when rest of world was still content to be powered by fossil fuels, driving NASA to explore new ways to generate & store energy."
NASA H2 9.2. 04 Jan 2024, NASA, Magnetohydrodynamic Drive for Hydrogen and Oxygen Production in Mars Transfer "A new approach employs magnetohydrodynamic electrolytic cell that extracts & separates O2 & H2 gas without moving parts in microgravity, removing need for a forced water recirculation loop & associated ancillary equipment such as pumps or centrifuges."
ESA H2 9.3. 21 Dec 2023, ESA, Green hydrogen for Ariane 6 and more "Ariane 6 uses LH2 & LO2 as fuel for its main and upper stages. Hydrogen in its gaseous form (H2) is rarely found on Earth, and so is currently produced in French Guiana from steam reforming of methanol, ESA & France’s space agency CNES to use to solar-powered electrolysis of H2O."
Lunar H2 9.4. 15 Nov 2023, Nature, Hydrogen-bearing vesicles in space weathered lunar calcium-phosphates "Here we present transmission electron microscopy analyses of Apollo lunar soil 79221 that reveal solar-wind hydrogen concentrated in vesicles as molecular hydrogen in the calcium-phosphates apatite and merrillite."
WHA H2 9.5. 21 Sep 2023, WHA International, Will hydrogen power the future of Aerospace? "Engineers have used Hydrogen in rocket fuel and Hydrogen fuel cells since the early years of space exploration. Hydrogen high power and quick refueling potential make it an attractive clean energy option for new aerospace applications as well."
Toyota Lunar Rover H2 Fuel Cell 9.6. 21 Jul 2023, Toyota, Development Status Toyota's Manned Pressurized Rover and MHI's LUPEX Rover "Toyota Fuel cell technology cultivated through long years of vehicle development and technologies developed for the moon, fed back to Earth used to create better vehicles and develop technologies for sustainable society with Lunar Cruiser developed by Toyota."
Infinite Composites LH2 9.7. 27 Jun 2023, Infinite Composites, INFINITE COMPOSITES: TYPE V TANKS FOR SPACE "Type V Space application: the infiniteCPV is a simplified all-composite design that allows for users to take advantage of the maximum fuel storage capacity at the lowest possible weight. Removing the need for a metallic or plastic gas barrier eliminates the potential of a liner failure."
Moon Mars H2 9.8. 06 Jun 2023, Nature, Assessment of the technological viability of photoelectrochemical devices for oxygen and fuel production on Moon and Mars "Present is a refined Martian solar irradiance spectrum and establish the thermodynamic and realistic efficiency limits of solar-driven lunar water-splitting and Martian carbon dioxide reduction (CO2R) devices."
Destinus 9.9. 27 Mar 2023, Destinus, Destinus Receives 12M Grant for H2 Flight "Destinus, a European aerospace firm specializing in high-speed H2 powered airplanes, has been chosen by the Spanish Ministry of Science’s Centro para el Desarrollo Tecnológico e Industrial program to participate in a strategic initiative to further R&D for supersonic flight utilizing H2 as fuel."
Lunar H2O 9.10. 27 Mar 2023, Nature, A solar wind-derived H2O reservoir on the Moon hosted by impact glass beads "A report on the abundance, H2 isotope composition and core-to-rim variations of H2O measured in impact glass beads from lunar soils via Chang’e-5. The impact glass beads preserve hydration signatures & display H2O consistent with inward diffusion of solar wind-derived H2O."
IJER 9.11. 21 Feb 2023, IJER, Liquid Cooling Flow Field Design and Thermal Analysis of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Space Applications "This study examined PEM fuel cell elements and cooling flow channel design for space applications. The effect of the designed flow channel on the PEM fuel cell temperature distribution was investigated. "
JAXA Honda 9.12. 19 Jan 2023, JAXA Honda, Honda Signs Research and Development Contract with JAXA Regarding Circulative Renewable Energy System Designed to Supply Electricity Supporting Living Space for People During Lunar Surface Exploration "The circulative renewable energy system combines Honda’s original high differential pressure water electrolysis system & fuel cell."
Anasphere 9.13. 01 Jan 2023, Anasphere, Hydrogen Generation for Space, "Anasphere has been developing solid-state H2 gas generators since 2011 and produce dry H2 gas at a rapid & controlled rate. The primary space-related application for these generators is the inflation of Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Deceleratorss."
FORTUNE 9.14. 06 Dec 2022, FORTUNE, Space travel is heating up—and so are rocket fuel emissions, "NASA’s Artemis I launch is the first in a series of missions to enable human exploration of the moon and Mars. The mission successfully utilized H2 to produce enough energy to power four engines with 2 million pounds of thrust. The other main by-product was water vapor."
History H2 as fuel 9.15. 18 Oct 2022, Hydrogen Fuel News, History of H2 fuel has a fascinating connection with space programs"The aerospace industry has long known that there is considerable potential using H2 as an energy source. When President Kennedy announced in 1962 that US would land on the moon within a decade, he changed the path of the history of H2 fuel."
Infinity 9.16. 27 Sep 2022, Infinity Fuel Cell and Hydrogen, Inc. "Infinity announced that their Advanced Modular Power and Energy System (AMPES) operated successfully aboard Blue Origin’s New Shepard 23 flight Sep 12, "The AMPES system is a scalable modular system that could be used to power landers, rovers, surface equipment and habitats on the moon or Mars."
MT  Aerospace 9.17. 04 Jul 2022, MT Aerospace, MT have provided proof that a high-performance pressure tank made of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) can withstand cryogenic stress (H2 or O2), "In the future, the use of CFRP high-performance tanks enables safe rocket launches." phys.org https://phys.org/news/2021-07-rocket-tanks-carbon-fiberreinforced-plastic-proven.html
ESA H2 9.18. 28 Jun 2022, ESA, Launch goes green with Spaceport hydrogen plan “This is a good step for greening Europe's spaceport. The number of launches is growing rapidly, so now is the right time to invest. A green hydrogen system will support environmental sustainability, stabilise costs and protect Spaceport operations from energy supply disruption."
NASA H2 9.19. 29 Mar 2022 - NASA: H2 and Fuel Cell Perspectives "Background of NASA H2 activities technologies for Aerospace applications / Reactant generation / Environmental Control & Life Support / In Situ Resource Utilization / Energy Storage / H2 Economy / Reactant Transfer & Storage / Cis-lunar propellant infrastructure / Power Generation / Energy Storage"
ABB Toyota JAXA 9.20. 23 Apr 2020 - ABB: Hydrogen fuel cells: driving sustainable mobility on the Moon and beyond "Total driving time on the initial mission is expected to total more than 10,000Km (6,213m). The rover needs to locate & study interesting scientific targets. Toyota’s next-generation fuel cell will enable the rover to travel up to 1,000 kilometers on one tank of H2."

H2 Fe Process Metso 10.1. 25 Feb 2024, Santos, SANTOS SIGNS MOU TO SUPPORT GREEN STEEL TRANSFORMATION OF WHYALLA STEELWORKS IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA "Whyalla has all elements required for green steel industry – vast reserves of high-quality magnetite, abundant potential for renewable energy, cape-sized capable sea port & skilled workforce."
H2 Fe Process Metso 10.2. 17 Jan 2024, Metso, Circored™ 100% Hydrogen based Fine Ore Reduction as one route to CO2 neutral steelmaking "The flexible process, which produces highly metalized direct reduced iron (DRI) or hot briquetted iron (HBI) that can be fed directly to an electric arc furnace, has proven its functionality and performance in an industrial-scale demonstration plant."
H2 Fe Process Review 10.3. 12 Dec 2023, ACS, A Review on the Modeling and Simulation of Shaft Furnace Hydrogen Metallurgy: A Chemical Engineering Perspective "The discrete element method (DEM) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD)–DEM models have been used for particle-scale simulation to investigate inhomogeneous particle descent and relevant particle–particle interactions."
H2 CrMo Quench Process Review 10.4. 11 Dec 2023, MDPI, In-Situ H2 Charging Effect on the Fracture Behaviour of 42CrMo4 Steel Submitted to Various Quenched and Tempering Heat Treatments "Here, 42CrMo4 steel was subjected to quenched and tempered heat treatments using different temperature and time durations, in order to obtain different tempered martensite microstructures."
H2 Fe Process 10.5. 02 Oct 2023, Nature, How much hydrogen is in green steel? "Here two key questions that need to be answered before implementing hydrogen as a reductant at the industrial scale for green steel production: (1) How much hydrogen is in green steel? (2) Will green steel suffer from severe hydrogen embrittlement?"
Australia H2 Fe Process 10.6. 01 Oct 2023, ScienceDirect, Green steel: Synergies between the Australian iron ore industry and the production of green hydrogen "Australia could produce low-cost green steel for value-added export and there is strong correlation between hydrogen hubs and iron ore operations. Existing infrastructure supports the roll-out of the industry."
H2 Fe Process 10.7. 29 Sep 2023, Metso-Aurubis, Aurubis AG and Metso working on the decarbonization of Hamburg copper smelter "Metso’s technology, consisting of complete hydrogen-ready Outotec Anode Furnaces with hoods and auxiliary equipment used in the anode refining process with with Aurubis as a key in designing the H2-ready furnace by Metso, a first in the copper industry."
H2 LPSO Process 10.8. 10 Sep 2023, MDPI, Design of LPSO Phases in Mg-Y-Ni Alloys to Impact Hydrogenation Kinetics "This work demonstrated LPSO structures decompose into Mg phase, Mg2Ni phase, lamellar Mg/Mg-Y structures, and YHx particles and shows H2 kinetics can be impacted in Mg-Y-Ni alloys by controlling the LPSO phases using common metallurgical techniques."
H2 Fe Ore Process 10.9. 09 Sep 2023, ACS, Heat Transfer Conditions in Hydrogen-Fired Rotary Kilns for Iron Ore Processing "This work aims to map operational regimes relevant to H2-fired rotary kiln based on heat transfer conditions, including influence of flame length & presence of char particles. Compared to the conditions in an industrial case of iron ore pelletizing, applying a coal flame."
H2 LPSO Process 10.10. 30 Aug 2023, MDPI, Hydrogen-Based Direct Reduction of Iron Oxides: A Review on the Influence of Impurities "Here the advantages and challenges of using H2 as the reductant are examined, and an overview of important projects in this area is introduced & critical review of the kinetics of Fe reduction with impact of various gangue materials on reduction."
H2 Hydro Al Process 10.11. 15 Jun 2023, Hydro, World’s first batch of recycled aluminium using hydrogen fueled production "Green H2 can remove hard to abate emissions from fossil fuels, in processes where electricity is not an alternative, both in the aluminium industry and in other heavy industries, The results from this test can also be relevant for using H2 in primary aluminium casthouses."
H2 Al Process 10.12. 20 May 2023, MDPI, LCA Analysis Decarbonisation Potential of Aluminium Primary Production by Applying Hydrogen and CCUS Technologies "The results show that green H2 replacing NG is the most environmentally beneficial option, accounting for a 10.76% reduction in Global Warming Potential and 1.26% in Photochemical Ozone Formation."
H2 Steel Australia 10.13. 18 May 2023, ScienceDirect, Green steel: Synergies between the Australian iron ore industry and the production of green hydrogen "Study highlights opportunities / challenges facing Australian steel industry in contributing to decarbonization globally, underscoring the role of government in driving growth & development of a green steel industry."
H2 DRi EAF Steel Process 10.14. 04 May 2023, Nature, Global green hydrogen-based steel opportunities surrounding high quality renewable energy and iron ore deposits "In this study, we provide a baseline assessment of the global potential of renewables-powered steel production using green H2-DRI-EAF technology, where the entire supply chain is co-located at the iron ore mine vicinities."
H2 Fe Process 10.15. 01 May 2023, T&F Online, Study on hydrogen smelting reduction behaviour in synthetic molten HIsarna slag "The reaction rate is significantly improved by injecting Hydrogen into the molten slag; bubbles are generated during the Hydrogen injection resulting in ample surface area between the Hydrogen and liquid slag."
NH3 Steel Process 10.16. 30 Mar 2023, Advanced Science, Reducing Iron Oxide with NH3: A Sustainable Path to Green Steel "Demonstrated is how to make sustainable steel by reducing solid iron oxides with H2 released from NH3. NH3 is an annually 180 million ton traded chemical energy carrier, with established transcontinental logistics and low liquefaction costs."
H2 Fe Process 10.17. 15 Mar 2023, T&F Online, Development of softening and melting testing conditions simulating blast furnace operation with hydrogen injection "In this study, a 2-D axisymmetric Computational Fluid Dynamics model is used to simulate the internal conditions of a modern blast furnace operation, and a future operation with tuyere level hydrogen injection."
HPSR Steel H2 10.18. 17 Feb 2023, Journal of Cleaner Production, Decarbonisation and H2 integration of steel industries: Recent development, challenges and technoeconomic analysis "This review reports major technologies, recent developments, challenges / technoeconomic comparison of steelmaking technologies, emphasising integration of H2 in ironmaking/steelmaking."
Nippon Steel H2 10.19. 09 Feb 2023, Nippon Steel, Nippon Steel Decided to Start Demonstration of H2 Reduction in a Large-scale Actual Blast Furnace —Facility for demonstrating H2-rich gas injection technique for No.2 blast furnace of East Nippon Works Kimitsu Area "A Green Innovation Fund project under New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Org."
MDPI 10.20. 27 Jan 2023, MDPI "Multi-Model Assessment for Secondary Smelting Decarbonisation: The Role of Hydrogen in the Clean Energy Transition: "A comparative analysis of the environmental impact of different thermal energy sources, namely natural gas, light fuel oil, liquified petroleum gas, hydrogen and electricity, for a secondary aluminium smelter is presented."

Natural H2 11.1. 09 Feb 2024, PHYS.ORG, Largest flow of natural H2 gas ever found measured in Albanian chromium mine, "A team of geologists working with a pair of colleagues from Albania has measured the largest natural flow of H2 ever in an Albanian Cr mine. In their study, reported in the journal Science, the group measured H2 gas bubbling up through liquid pools in the mine."
Natural H2 11.2. 08 Feb 2024, DOE ARPA-E, U.S. DOE Announces $20 Million to 16 Projects Spearheading Exploration of Geologic H2, "USA project teams will explore the possibility of accelerating the production & extraction of natural H2, transforming our understanding of this critical energy resource while accelerating solutions we need to ncrease our nation’s energy security."
Natural H2 11.3. 20 Jan 2024, ACS, Advancing Natural Hydrogen Exploration: Headspace Gas Analysis in Water-Logged Environments, "Here we present a novel approach for advancing natural hydrogen exploration through the analysis of headspace gas of agitated groundwater extracted from dedicated shallow boreholes to better estimate the hydrogen gas flux and its variations with time."
Natural H2 11.4. 02 Jan 2024, Science Direct, Deep learning–assisted phase equilibrium analysis for producing natural hydrogen, "Here, natural hydrogen industry chain are provided to control the possible phase transitions under certain environmental conditions that may be observed in the natural hydrogen reservoirs, storage and transportation facilities."
Natural H2 11.5. 01 Jan 2024, Science Direct, Natural hydrogen in the energy transition: Fundamentals, promise, and enigmas, "Current estimations suggest that approximately 20 Mtpy of natural hydrogen are escaping from the surface into the atmosphere [12]. Most of this hydrogen travels up to the ionosphere and ends up escaping into space."
Economist Natural H2 11.6. 20 Dec 2023, The Economist, Meet the boffins and buccaneers drilling for hydrogen - The search is on for a clean fuel that could one day replace oil, "Unlike actual gold, hydrogen is spectacularly useful. As a fuel, in theory it could power cars, buses, planes and ships. It could be burned in power plants, generating electricity."
Natural H2 11.7. 13 Dec 2023, Hydrogen Insight, 'Energy of the future' | French president promises 'massive funding' for natural hydrogen, "French President Macron: “To strengthen us, I wanted to tell you here that we are going to go further and that in ‘France 2030’, we are going to provide massive funding to explore the potential of what we call white H2, that is to say natural H2."
NYT Natural H2 11.8. 04 Dec 2023, New York Times, It Could Be a Vast Source of Clean Energy, Buried Deep Underground, "Natural hydrogen, also called white hydrogen because of its purity, could be a game changer, scientists say, because it is a potential source of clean energy continuously generated by the earth. Hydrogen reservoirs form when heated water meets iron-rich rocks."
Natural H2 11.9. 04 Dec 2023, SA Gov, Natural hydrogen, "Australia could be one of the most promising areas for H2 exploration, de facto a couple of wells already found H2, whereas they were drilled to look for hydrocarbons. The sum of areas from where H2 is seeping overpasses 45 km2 in Kangaroo Island as in the Yorke Peninsula."
Natural H2 11.10. 24 Oct 2023, AUS Gov, Geoscience Australia supporting hydrogen research, "There is interest in the presence of natural H2 accumulations and the potential discovery of H2 gas fields. The extent of this natural H2 is not well understood, but there are reports of high concentrations of natural H2 in Australia."
Natural H2 11.11. 05 Sep 2023, NASA, Natural Hydrogen: Circular Depressions Seep Hydrogen Gas, "Australia may be a treasure map of sorts for a natural source of clean energy. Clusters of so-called “fairy circles” in the North Perth Basin of Western Australia have been found to seep hydrogen gas from their perimeters."
Natural H2 11.12. 14 Aug 2023, Frontiers in Earth Science, Natural H2 seeps or salt lakes: how to make a difference? Grass Patch example, Western Australia, "This study soil-gas sampling method includes a monitoring procedure compatible with time series measurements via a portable gas analyser, getting rid of artificially produced H2. Low H2 values -30 ppm measured."
Natural H2 11.13. 22 Jul 2023, Nature, Characterization of the spontaneously recharging natural hydrogen reservoirs of Bourakebougou in Mali, "When comparing a H2 reservoir system to classical oil and gas reservoir systems, the results show that the H2 reservoir is a dynamic system that is progressively recharged in H2-rich gas at the production timescale."
Natural H2 11.14. 04 Jul 2023, CSIRO, The earth might hold huge stores of natural hydrogen – and prospectors are already scouring South Australia for it, "Ancient, iron-rich rocks can produce hydrogen. So can rocks such as serpentinite, and basalt produced from magma emerging in the deep ocean, or from organic-rich rocks such as coals or shales."
Natural H2 11.15. 01 Jun 2023, European Geologist, The place of natural H2 in the energy transition: A position paper, "H2 exploration should focus on areas where ferrous Fe and/or natural radioactivity is present and can react with H2O. Magmatic rocks are of importance & many occurrences of H2 seepages are known on continental or offshore regions related to these rocks."
Natural H2 11.16. 29 May 2023, HyTerra, NATURAL HYDROGEN EXPLORATION & PRODUCTION, "Natural hydrogen is generated through naturally occurring, geological processes in the subsurface. Although hundreds of historical wells have observed natural hydrogen, explorers previously had no incentive to commercialise this resource."
Natural H2 11.17. 13 Apr 2023, US Geology Survey, The Potential for Geologic Hydrogen for Next-Generation Energy, "If even a small fraction of this estimated H2 volume could be recovered, there would be enough H2 across all the global deposits to last for hundreds of years and the amount of H2 in Earth’s interior could constitute a primary energy resource."
Natural H2 11.18. 06 Mar 2023, Advanced Science, Uncovering hidden reserves of natural hydrogen, "There are many factors to consider before drilling for hydrogen such as where in the planet’s rocky surface would produce the ideal conditions for generation processes, the shapes of the structures trapping the hydrogen, and any possible loss mechanisms in the process."
Natural H2 11.19. 16 Feb 2023, Science, HIDDEN HYDROGEN - Does Earth hold vast stores of a renewable, carbon-free fuel?, "Researchers say water-rock reactions deep within the Earth continuously generate hydrogen, which percolates up through the crust and sometimes accumulates in underground traps."
Natural H2 11.20. 23 Jan 2023, Lyell Geological Science, Natural hydrogen seeps as analogues to inform monitoring of engineered geological hydrogen storage, "We report and compare the geological and environmental setting; seepage mode (dry gas/associated with water); co-released gases; seep rates and areal fluxes; temporal variation; seep structure; gas source; and composition."

Australian National University 12.1. AU - Australian National University (ANU) Publications on aspects of the Hydrogen economy transition.
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation 12.2. AU - Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Publications from CSIRO on Hydrogen Fuel Cell research and development of renewable energy solutions.
Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology 12.3. AU - Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) Publications from the RMIT Sustainable Hydrogen Energy Laboratory (SHEL) that pioneers research and development on hydrogen energy solutions.
University of NSW Hydrogen Energy Research Centre 12.4. AU - University of NSW Hydrogen Energy Research Centre (HERC) Select (Dr Shaun Chan) Publications from a world-first centre for hydrogen energy innovation, focusing on devising practical solutions to enable the hydrogen economy.
frontiers 12.5. CH - Frontiers Frontiers is the 3rd most-cited and 6th largest research publisher and open science platform. Our research journals are community-driven and peer-reviewed by editorial boards of more than 260,000 top researchers.
MDPO 12.6. CH - MDPI Hydrogen Journal MDPI has supported academic communities since 1996. Based in Basel, Switzerland, MDPI has the mission to foster open scientific exchange in all forms, across all disciplines.
SciOpen 12.7. CN - SciOpen SciOpen is a professional open access resource for discovery of scientific and technical content published by the Tsinghua University Press, its publishing partners, providing the scholarly publishing community with innovative technology and market-leading capabilities.
Hydrogen Tech World 12.8. DE - Hydrogen Tech World Publications including an interesting mix of company profiles, in-depth technical articles, reports from major end users and projects in the hydrogen production industries.
Hydrogen Europe Research 12.9. EU - Hydrogen Europe Research Publications from the European scientific community involved in the development of a new, industrial ecosystem based on hydrogen and committed to moving towards a circular, carbon-neutral economy.
H2Ships Europe Research 12.10. EU - Interreg: North-West Europe H2SHIPS Research Hydrogen in shipping; H2SHIPS Projects and a place with technical materials relating to hydrogen and fuel cells in shipping. The site is also a portal for sharing the H2SHIPS Project outputs.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 12.11. INT - International Journal of Hydrogen Energy A central vehicle for the exchange and dissemination of new ideas, technology developments and research results in the field of Hydrogen Energy between scientists and engineers throughout the world.
Advanced Industrial, Science and Technology, Fukushima Renewable Energy Institute, Hydrogen Energy Carrier Team 12.12. JP - Advanced Industrial, Science and Technology, Fukushima Renewable Energy Institute, Hydrogen Energy Carrier Team Developing technologies for storing and utilizing large amounts of renewable energy that will help solve several energy issues facing Japan.
Korea Institute of Energy Research 12.13. KR - Korea Institute of Energy Research Future Energy Research Division conducts researches on H2 generation, storage, transportation, and utilization to realize a future energy society, focusing on the development of fuel cell technologies represented by generation, storage, and use of H2, an eco-friendly source of energy with economic benefits obtained by coal fuels and water.
ScienceDirect 12.14. NL - ScienceDirect From foundational science to new and novel research, discover our large collection of Physical Sciences and Engineering publications, covering a range of disciplines, from the theoretical to the applied.
Journal of Green Technologies and Sustainability 12.15. NL - ScienceDirect Journal of Green Technologies and Sustainability This Journal encourages and promotes interdisciplinary research and development to important technological and theoretical developments in greentech and sustainability issues.
National University of Singapore 12.16. SG - National University of Singapore - Centre for Hydrogen Innovations Publications site promotes cutting-edge R&D advancements in H2 production, storage, and utilization; and fosters collaborations with industries, academia, and agencies to drive H2-based solutions.
IET 12.17. UK - TheIET.ORG The Institution of Engineering and Technology Wiley - Search "hydrogen + energy" => research developments -> we inspire, inform and influence the global engineering and technology community to engineer a better world.
PO 12.18. UK - Science X / PHYS.ORG Search "hydrogen + energy" => Daily science news on research developments, technological breakthroughs and the latest scientific innovations.
PO 12.19. UK - University of Birmingham The Birmingham Centre for Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Research focuses on research and development, applications and demonstrations of fuel cell and hydrogen systems and technologies.
ACS 12.20. US - American Chemical Society (ACS) pubs.acs.org ACS Publications’ commitment to publishing high-quality content continues to attract impactful research that addresses the world’s most important challenges.
IEEE 12.21. US - IEEE ieee.org IEEE is the world’s largest technical professional organization dedicated to advancing technology for the benefit of humanity.
Mendeley 12.22. US - Mendeley.com Search "hydrogen + energy" => Year/Document Type/Journal/Author/Access Type/Most relevant/Most recent/Most cited science articles on research developments, technological breakthroughs and the latest scientific innovations.
nauture 12.23. US - Nature.com Search "hydrogen + evolution + reaction + HER" for wide variety of journal articles on researched developments, technological breakthroughs and latest innovations.
National Renewable Energy Laboratory 12.24. US - National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) NREL's research accelerates development, integration, and scale up of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies to enable widespread deployment across multiple energy sectors.
Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy 12.25. US - Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Technical information about hydrogen published in technical reports, conference proceedings, journal articles, and websites is provided, across categories: General, Production, Delivery, and Storage.
Pennsylvania State University 12.26. US - Pennsylvania State University, H2E Center Researchers at Penn State are active in a variety of topics in hydrogen production, storage, and use in fuel cells and for other applications.
Proceedings of the National Academv of Sciences 12.27. US - Proceedings of the National Academv of Sciences, PNAS PNAS is one of the world's most-cited and comprehensive multidisciplinary scientific journals, publishing more than 3,500 research papers annually.
University of Michigan 12.28. US - University of Michigan - MI Hydrogen A joint venture by the Office of the Vice President for Research, Michigan Engineering and the School for Environment and Sustainability.
University of South Carolina 12.29. US - University of South Carolina College of Engineering and Computing Publications includes a number of specific areas of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells research related to fundamental knowledge, technical applications, and integrated systems.
Southwest Research Institute 12.30. US - Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) SwRI develops applied R&D solutions with hydrogen technology used in rockets, alternative combustion, fuel cells, energy storage, and industrial processing plants.
University of Texas 12.31. US - University of Texas (UT) Feautured publications and White Papers on Blue Hydrogen, Green H2 economy, H2 infrastructure, and achieving NET ZERO by 2050.


HER: 2H2O(l) ↔ 2H2(g) + O2(g) E0 = -1.229V

Atomic Mass (mole): Hydrogen 1.00784 u; Carbon 12.011 u; Oxygen 15.999 u

Molar Mass: Hydrogen 2.01568 g/mole; Carbon 12.011 g/mole; Oxygen 31.998 g/mole

1000g H2(g) + 7937g O2(g) ↔ 8937g H2O(l)

1000g H2 contains 33.33 kWh Energy
sciencedirect.com - Hydrogen Energy Systems

Gravimetric Energy Density HHV
sciencedirect.com/topics/engineering/high-heating-value


AUS SOE
MPA