Published by OTSO 2024-07-18

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Hydrogen Energy Research
Published 2024-07-18

Reshoring renewables manufacturing

Hydrogen Energy Research
Scientific & Applied Engineering References

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Open-source Technology for Sustainable Opportunities

select videos (R12.)

03.2024: Yamaha Marine - Exploring Hydrogen for the Marine Industry (video 7.43m)
02.2024: UoM/Hysata - Bubble-free capillary water electrolysis: A new approach to industrial water electrolysis (video 58.00m)
02.2024: Daimler / Linde - Daimler Mercedes Truck and Linde Liquid Hydrogen Refueling Technology (video 2.06m)
01.2024: South Australia: Energy and Mining in SA (video 10.09m)
01.2024: MIT - For the love of speed: Building a hydrogen-powered motorcycle (video 4.10m)
08.2023: Introducing POSEIDON - ITM Power’s 20MW electrolyser module. (video 1.58m)
07.2024: Joby Aviation - Flying 523 Miles (841km), Emissions-Free: Joby's Hydrogen-Electric Demonstrator (video 2.30m)

02 Jul 2024, Mitsui & Co, Report “Australia’s Renewable Energy” evolution via “Stable Electricity Supply”
Geoscience Australia, "Geoscience Australia Portal - Hydrogen Projects"
17 May 2024, CSIRO, "Australia Hydrogen Technology Projects Map"
20 Dec 2023, The Economist, "Unlike actual gold, hydrogen is spectacularly useful."
20 Jan 2023, MDPI, "A Brief Review of Hydrogen Production Methods and Their Challenges"
01 Nov 2004, NASA, "Launched in 1965, Gemini V was the first spacecraft to use (PEM) fuel cells."


H2 Pt PEM 1.1. 16 Jul 2024, ScienceDirect, Alkaline electrochemical deposition of Pt for alkaline electrolyzers, "The study begins with developing strategies to dissolve commonly used Pt precursors from acidic baths into stable complexes suitable for alkaline environments. Various protocols, including chronoamperometric and potentiometric ones, are employed to evaluate the Pt electrodeposition on substrates such as nickel."
H2 Pb-Ni PEM 1.2. 11 Jul 2024, PHYS.ORG, Study introduces lead-coated nickel catalyst for enhanced hydrogen evolution reaction efficiency, "The research team introduced a lead (Pb) coating on a nickel (Ni) catalyst. Although lead is typically not used as a catalyst due to its low activity in hydrogen evolution reactions, the study found that coating nickel, a hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst, with lead enhances its performance."
H2 ITM Power PEM 1.3. 08 Jul 2024, ITM POWER PLC, 500MW CAPACITY RESERVATION, "ITM is pleased to announce that it has signed a 500MW capacity reservation with a global industrial customer. This reservation secures future production capacity for the manufacturing of our state-of-the-art electrolyser stacks. The agreement covers the period until the end of the 2028 calendar year and foresees call-offs against future projects in Europe and the US."
H2 PEM 1.4. 05 Jul 2024, ACS, Structure- and Morphology-Controlled Synthesis of Hexagonal Ni2–xZnxP Nanocrystals & Composition-Dependent Electrocatalytic Activity for HER, "We provide insights into enhancing performance of metal phosphides through doping-induced electronic structure variation paving the way for design of high-efficiency & durable nanostructures for heterogeneous catalytic studies."
H2 PEM 1.5. 02 Jul 2024, ScienceDirect, Well-dispersed radical scavengers for highly durable hydrocarbon-based proton exchange membranes in water electrolysis, "In this study, we demonstrate a facile ball milling process to enhance the dispersion of CeO2 without chemical reactions or surface treatments, which can minimize the decrease in the proton conductivity of CeO2/ionomer composites."
H2 systems overview 1.6. 29 Jun 2024, ScienceDirect, Advancing the hydrogen production economy: A comprehensive review of technologies, sustainability, and future prospects, "Here via H2 production technologies & future prospects this review contributes to shaping the trajectory of sustainable energy systems, advancing the adoption of H2 as a key energy vector & underscoring the importance of alternative & sustainable energy sources."
H2 Bubbles H2 systems 1.7. 28 Jun 2024, ScienceDirect, Alkaline water electrolysis: Ultrasonic field and hydrogen bubble formation, "This work focused on an experimental evaluation of the effect of an ultrasonic field with a 40 kHz frequency on water electrolysis using a lab-scale electrolyser with three different KOH solutions varying in concentration (15, 25, 35% (w/w)) at 30, 40, 50, 60 °C & a reduction in cell potential registered across all test conditions."
H2 Seawater H2 systems 1.8. 25 Jun 2024, ScienceDirect, AN INNOVATIVE ELECTROLYTIC CATION EXCHANGE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CLEANER GENERATION OF HYDROGEN GAS USING OCEAN WATER, "Seawater makes up 96.5 percent of all the water on Earth, the focus is on directly electrolyzing seawater to generate hydrogen without incurring additional costs related to purifying the water."
H2 Toluene systems 1.9. 24 Jun 2024, ScienceDirect, Water transport across the membrane of a direct toluene electro-hydrogenation electrolyzer: Experiments and modelling, "This study investigates water transport across the Nafion™ 117 membrane of an in-house electrolyzer cell, employing sulfuric acid and toluene solutions as the anode and cathode reactant, respectively, and operating at current densities from 0.1 to 0.8 A/cm2."
H2 AEM systems 1.10. 20 Jun 2024, ACS, Structural Aspects of MoSx Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction, "Here we use PEALD to prepare both amorphous MoSx thin films with a controlled S/Mo ratio as well as crystalline films with tailored properties including crystallinity, defectivity (e.g., S vacancies) & morphology & discuss the effects of plasma chemistry and deposition temperature on film properties."
H2 AEM systems 1.11. 15 Jun 2024, ACS, Impact of Nickel on Iridium–Ruthenium Structure and Activity for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction under Acidic Conditions, "Here the effect of adding various amounts of Ni to synthesis in terms of catalyst structure & OER activity & through characterization using X-ray techniques, determine the presence of Ni during synthesis yields significant changes in structure of IrRu NPs."
H2 HER systems 1.12. 14 Jun 2024, ScienceDirect, A review on fundamentals for designing H2 evolution electrocatalyst, "Here we summarize basics of HER & examine latest cutting-edge progress in economical & highly efficiency catalysts utilizing non-noble & noble metals. Also, recent breakthroughs over preceding years in electrolytic HER employing more affordable & available nanoparticles with a specific center of attention on economical & non-platinum electrocatalysts."
H2 AEM systems 1.13. 14 Jun 2024, ACS, Electrodeposited Porous Nickel–Copper as a Non-Noble Metal Catalyst for Urea-Assisted Anion Exchange Membrane Electrolysis for Hydrogen Production, "Here we prepared nickel–copper films on nickel felt substrate as a urea oxidation catalyst, which exhibited a lower Tafel slope compared to oxygen evolution, indicating a more favorable reaction pathway. Confirming the improvement."
H2 AEM systems 1.14. 14 Jun 2024, Nature, Direct in-situ imaging of electrochemical corrosion of Pd-Pt core-shell electrocatalysts, "Herein, we utilized in-situ electrochemical LC-TEM (ELC-TEM)49,50 to study the nanoscale structural evolution of a typical Pt-based electrocatalyst, the Pd@Pt core-shell octahedral nanoparticle, a model system with high electrochemical surface area & high activities toward multiple electrocatalytic reactions."
H2 Ln-RuOx systems 1.15. 11 Jun 2024, Nature, Lanthanide-regulating Ru-O covalency optimizes acidic oxygen evolution electrocatalysis, "Density functional calculations conducted on Ln-RuOx systems show resultant 4d−2p−4f hybridization induces a continuously varying Ru–O covalency for dictating OER performance. Benefiting from an optimal Ru–O covalency, Er-RuOx was screened out as it demonstrated largest formation energy of the lattice O2 & Ru vacancy."
H2 AEM 1.16. 11 Jun 2024, ACS, Rational Design of Phase-Engineered WS2/WSe2 Heterostructures by Low-Temperature Plasma-Assisted Sulfurization and Selenization toward Enhanced HER Performance, "Here, we introduce a novel approach to create a 1T-WS2/1T-WSe2 heterostructure using a low-temperature plasma-assisted chemical vapor reaction (PACVR), namely plasma-assisted sulfurization and plasma-assisted selenization processes."
H2 AEM 1.17. 10 Jun 2024, ACS, Controlled Localized Metal–Organic Framework Synthesis on Anion Exchange Membranes, "In this work, we show that our method can localize the growth of both Cu-BTC and ZIF-8 in water and in methanol, respectively, highlighting that this method can used for preparing a variety of MOF films with varying characteristics using soluble precursors at room temperature."
H2 Bio 1.18. 07 Jun 2024, ACS, Nanostructured Pt-NiFe Oxide Catalyst for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction in Alkaline Electrolyte Membrane Water Electrolyzers, "Here, we report the synthesis of NiFe oxide-supported Pt nanocatalysts by a modified colloidal method (under proper pH conditions) and demonstrate improved alkaline HER activity. The NiFe oxide materials were prepared based on the flame pyrolysis method."
H2 Bio 1.19. 04 Jun 2024, ACS, Electrocatalytic and Selective Oxidation of Glycerol to Formate on 2D 3d-Metal Phosphate Nanosheets & Carbon-Negative H2 Generation, "herein a novel electrocatalyst material, unique & 2D ultrathin nanosheet phosphates featuring first-row transition metals are synthesized by a one-step solvothermal method & evaluated for electrocatalytic glycerol oxidation reaction in an alkaline medium & simultaneous H2 production."
H2 Bio 1.20. 03 Jun 2024, ACS, Nanolayered Ti4N3Tx MXene Retains Its Electrocatalytic Properties after Prolonged Immersion in Solvents, "Herein, we investigate the electrocatalytic behavior of a nanolayered Ti4N3Tx nitride MXene toward HER and ORR after a period of 230 days in various solvents, including water, ethanol, N–N dimethylformamide (DMF), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), acetonitrile, and hexane."

H2 photocatalytic nanocomposite 2.1. 12 Jul 2024, ACS, Direct Anchoring of Molybdenum Sulfide Molecular Catalysts on Antimony Selenide Photocathodes for Solar H2 Production, "Herein, we report the suitability of versatile and easy-to-deposit catalysts directly on Sb2Se3, which include molybdenum sulfide clusters in different configurations, namely [Mo3S4(H2O)9]Cl4 ([Mo3S4]4+) and (NH4)2[Mo3S13]·2H2O ([Mo3S13]2–)."
H2 photocatalytic nanocomposite 2.2. 07 Jul 2024, MDPI, PdS-ZnS-Doped Electrospun Polymer Nanofibers as Effective Photocatalyst for HER, "PdS-ZnS/PVAc nanofibers were found to be superior for HER within 250 min & ascribed to loading of PdS as cocatalyst on ZnS nanoparticles. The loading of a cocatalyst with a low bandgap could play important roles in improving the separation of photogenerated charge carriers."
H2 photocatalytic nanocomposite 2.3. 05 Jul 2024, ScienceDirect, CuGaS2@NH2-MIL-125(Ti) nanocomposite: Unveiling a promising catalyst for photocatalytic hydrogen generation, "In this study, we report, for the first time, the successful fabrication of a novel CuGaS2@NH2-MIL-125(Ti) nanocomposite in a two-step synthesis, consisting of octahedral NH2-MIL-125(Ti) metal-organic frameworks interspersed with flat hexagonal plates of CuGaS2."
H2 Seawater 2.4. 26 Jun 2024, Nature, Achieving a solar-to-chemical efficiency of 3.6% in ambient conditions by inhibiting interlayer charges transport, "Herein, we propose a strategy to enhance the utilization of internal excitons by suppressing the recombination of metastable excitons, polarons, and photogenerated charge carriers during interlayer transfer, achieved by inhibiting their interlayer transfer through rapid dissociation of polarons into free charges."
H2 Seawater 2.5. 24 Jun 2024, SciOpen, Engineering S-scheme W18O49/ZnIn2S4 heterojunction by CoxP nanoclusters for enhanced charge transfer capability and solar hydrogen evolution, "In this work, grafting CoxP nanoclusters onto S-scheme heterojunction of W18O49/ZnIn2S4 (WO/ZIS-CoxP) with strong response to the ultraviolet–visible–near infrared ray (UV–vis–NIR) region has been achieved."
H2 Seawater 2.6. 23 Jun 2024, Nature, Synthesis of borocarbonitride nanosheets from biomass for enhanced charge separation & H2 production, "Here we select diverse types of biomass as carbon sources for BCN photocatalyst synthesis & subsequently compares differences in their morphology, composition, structure, & performance - contributing to advancing knowledge in synthesizing BCN photocatalysts from diverse biomasses."
H2 Photocatalyst 2.7. 22 Jun 2024, ACS, Probabilistic Techno-Economic Assessment of Medium-Scale Photoelectrochemical Fuel Generation Plants, "Here we consider three standard PEC devices and compare them against two typical PV-EC devices in terms of systematic and physical performance models (including degradation rates). We combine this information with economic analysis to form a comprehensive techno-economic evaluation."
H2 Seawater 2.8. 21 Jun 2024, Nature, In-situ direct seawater electrolysis using floating platform in ocean with uncontrollable wave motion, "We present a scaled floating platform for in situ direct seawater electrolysis using offshore wind energy & operating at a 1.2 Nm3 h−1 H2 generation rate under uncontrolled & fluctuating ocean conditions. First, the influence of the fluctuating environment on the water migration process & on seawater electrolysis."
H2 Photocatalyst 2.9. 20 Jun 2024, ScienceDirect, CFD Modeling for Hydrogen Removal by a Passive Autocatalytic Recombiner in Oxygen-deficient Conditions, "This study aims to assess whether a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach effectively simulates hydrogen recombination characteristics by a passive autocatalytic recombiners (PAR) under oxygen-rich and lean conditions. Two PAR models were evaluated:"
H2 Photocatalyst 2.10. 18 Jun 2024, ScienceDirect, 1T′/2H MoS2 nanoflowers integrated with bismuth halide perovskite for improved photocatalytic hydrogen evolution, "Here 1 T′/2H−MoS2 nanoflowers were synthesized & coupled with tri(dimethylammonium) hexaiodobismuthate (DMA3BiI6) to form heterojunctions using a simple heating−cooling process. The synthesized 1 T′/2H−MoS2/DMA3BiI6 composites exhibit excellent photocatalytic HER activity."
H2 Photocatalyst 2.11. 13 Jun 2024, SciOpen, Experimental and theoretical investigation of sulfur-doped g-C3N4 nanosheets/FeCo2O4 nanorods S-scheme heterojunction for photocatalytic HER, "Band structure analysis & density functional theory calculations corroborate the carrier migration in SCN/FeCo2O4 photocatalyst adheres to a typical S-scheme heterojunction mechanism, effectively retaining highly reactive photogenerated electrons."
H2 Photocatalyst 2.12. 13 Jun 2024, ScienceDirect, Boosting hydrogen production in Rhodospirillum rubrum by syngas-driven photoheterotrophic adaptive evolution, "This study investigates the production of hydrogen (H2) and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) by R. rubrum from syngas under photoheterotrophic conditions. An adaptive laboratory evolution strategy (ALE) has been carried out to improve the yield of the process."
H2 Photocatalyst 2.13. 11 Jun 2024, SciOpen, High-efficiency crystalline carbon nitride photocatalysts: Status and perspectives, "Here crystalline carbon nitride (CCN) was reported as a promising photocatalyst because of its increased crystallinity not only reduces the number of carriers recombination centers, but also increases charge conductivity and improves light utilization due to extended π-conjugated systems and delocalized π-electrons."
H2 Bio 2.14. 10 Jun 2024, ScienceDirect, Enhanced Photocatalytic H2 Production of Ag And N-Doped NaTaO3 Perovskite Nanocubes, "Here we develop highly efficient photocatalysts for H2 production by leveraging the benefits of dual doping (Ag & N) & nanocube morphology, and overcome the limitations of pure NaTaO3, such as wide band gap & poor charge separation, by introducing enhancements that improve photocatalytic efficiency under visible light."
H2 Bio 2.15. 04 Jun 2024, Nature, Charge redistribution of a spatially differentiated ferroelectric Bi4Ti3O12 single crystal for photocatalytic overall water splitting, "We demonstrate that the BTO SDS is capable of evolving hydrogen and oxygen for one-step-excitation OWS under simulated solar light at a solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of 0.1%, 212 times greater than pristine single-crystal BTO."
H2 Bio 2.16. 04 Jun 2024, ScienceDirect, Hydrogel composites based on chitosan and CuAuTiO2 photocatalysts for hydrogen production under simulated sunlight irradiation, "This study explored photocatalytic HER using novel biohydrogel composites comprising chitosan & a photocatalyst consisting in TiO2 P25 decorated with Au and/or Cu mono- & bimetallic nanoparticles to boost its optical and catalytic properties."
H2 Bio 2.17. 02 Jun 2024, ScienceDirect, The Limits of Ground-State Water Splitting on ZnO surfaces: A Density Functional Theory Study, "Solar light is a renewable, free energy source, sustainable and practically inexhaustible. To take advantage of this ubiquitous and environmentally-friendly resource, there are large international efforts to discover and/or design suitable photoactive materials which can absorb, store, and eventually use this energy."
H2 Bio 2.18. 01 Jun 2024, Nature, A dual spin-controlled chiral two-/three-dimensional perovskite artificial leaf for efficient overall photoelectrochemical water splitting, "Here we demonstrate the CISS phenomenon can be augmented by adopting NEA-based 2D chiral OIHP SP on top of the 3D OIHP photoanode. Our 2D chiral OIHP exhibited an impressive CISS efficiency of 75%, indicating an impressively enhanced spin-control capability compared to other chiral materials."
H2 Bio 2.19. 13 May 2024, ACS, Conjugated Polymer/Recombinant Escherichia coli Biohybrid Systems for Photobiocatalytic Hydrogen Production, "This strategy significantly increases the proton reduction activity of the biohybrid system. The resulting biohybrid materials exhibited functional synergy between the two components and enhanced biohydrogen production by only using simulated solar light as the energy input."
H2 Plasma 2.20. 10 May 2024, ACS, Boosting Photocatalytic Metal-Free Hydrogen Production of Viologen-Based Covalent Organic Frameworks, "Through studies involving the deposition of COF-MB-TPCBP on the TiO2 surface, it was observed that this value further increased dramatically. Overall, this study introduces an innovative concept and an effective approach in the design and synthesis of stable and efficient photocatalysts based on COFs."

Natural H2 3.1. 10 Jul 2024, HyTerra Ltd, Nemaha Project: Kansas, USA, prospective for natural H2 & He, "Nemaha’s exploration acreage covers 12,720 acres and is 100% owned and operated by HyTerra. Our leases have historic wells with more than 10 H2 & He occurrences within the region, some up to 92% H2 & 3% He. White H2 potentially has much lower production costs & carbon emissions than man-made H2."
Natural H2 3.2. 12 Jun 2024, Gold Hydrogen Ltd, Substantial investment laying the foundation for hydrogen use, "Gold hydrogen is naturally occurring hydrogen that: Accumulates naturally under the ground, generated by geological processes. Can be produced using proven engineering practices with minimal environmental impacts and has a small footprint compared to other exploration activities."
Natural H2 3.3. 22 May 2024, Nature, A new continental hydrogen play in Damara Belt (Namibia), "Here is evidence of reported H2 emissions from Waterberg Basin, Namibia associated with underlying Neoproterozoic banded iron formations—the Chuos Formation. Magnetite, a known H2-generating mineral & accompanied by other suspected H2-generating minerals in Chuos Formation."
MIT Natural H2 3.4. 21 May 2024, MIT, H2 underground - 2024 MIT Energy Iniative Spring Symposium, "During MITEI’s Spring Symposium, MIT Assistant Professor Iwnetim Abate (right) said that geologic hydrogen opens up the idea of earth as a “factory to produce clean fuels,” utilizing the subsurface heat and pressure instead of relying on burning fossil fuels or natural gas for the same purpose."
MIT Natural H2 3.5. 07 May 2024, Geoenergy, Natural hydrogen: sources, systems and exploration plays, "he ‘hydrogen system’ describes the generation, migration and sealing/trapping of hydrogen. There are two parts to the ‘generic hydrogen system’: the ‘source-generation sub-system’ requires an ultramafic protolith, usually in basement, and a supply of water penetrating basement rocks."
Natural H2 3.6. 03 May 2024, YLE, 'Fuel of the future' deposits found across Finland, "The Geological Survey of Finland has published a map of bedrock H2. According to the map, H2 has been found in groundwater in locations across Finland. The finds indicate natural H2 which is produced in the bedrock by natural processes rather than artificially by electrolysis."
SA Natural H2 Regulation 3.7. 20 Mar 2024, South Australia, 'Petrobras Workshop de Hidrogenio Natural' Natural hydrogen regulation in South Australia: by E.Alexander, Geological Survey of South Australia, Department for Energy and Mining, "SA - Department for Energy & Mining is one of the very few government departments globally that recognises the link between mining & renewable energy."
Natural H2 3.8. 04 Mar 2024, University of Texas, Producing H2 From Rocks Gains Steam as Scientists Advance New Methods, "The catalysts the team is exploring will stimulate a natural geologic process called “serpentinization.”, here iron-rich rocks release H2 as a byproduct of chemical reactions. Serpentinization usually occurs at high temperatures & with natural catalysts including nickel & other platinum elements."
Natural H2 3.9. 28 Feb 2024, GEOscientist, Natural hydrogen: the race to discovery and concept demonstration, "Researchers of natural H2 are forging partnerships with a multitude of emerging start-ups / natural H2 companies spearheading testing & development of exploration concepts. Next years likely marked by a surge of activities as groups shift from conceptual stage to field work to planning & drilling."
Natural H2 3.10. 09 Feb 2024, PHYS.ORG, Largest flow of natural H2 gas ever found measured in Albanian chromium mine, "A team of geologists working with a pair of colleagues from Albania has measured the largest natural flow of H2 ever in an Albanian Cr mine. In their study, reported in the journal Science, the group measured H2 gas bubbling up through liquid pools in the mine."
Natural H2 3.11. 08 Feb 2024, Science, A deep reservoir for hydrogen drives intense degassing in the Bulqizë ophiolite, "Deep crustal production of hydrogen (H2) is a potential source of primary energy if recoverable accumulations in geological formations are sufficiently large. We report direct measurements of an elevated outgassing rate of 84% (by volume) of H2 from the deep underground Bulqizë chromite mine in Albania."
Natural H2 3.12. 08 Feb 2024, DOE ARPA-E, U.S. DOE Announces $20 Million to 16 Projects Spearheading Exploration of Geologic H2, "USA project teams will explore the possibility of accelerating the production & extraction of natural H2, transforming our understanding of this critical energy resource while accelerating solutions we need to ncrease our nation’s energy security."
Natural H2 3.13. 25 Jan 2024, Yale School of the Environment, Natural Hydrogen: A Potential Clean Energy Source Beneath Our Feet, "As studies show far more natural hydrogen underground than believed, well-funded efforts to drill for the gas are underway around the globe. H2 seeps to the surface whenever it has a chance, so drilling to provide a route may be all that is needed."
Natural H2 3.14. 20 Jan 2024, ACS, Advancing Natural Hydrogen Exploration: Headspace Gas Analysis in Water-Logged Environments, "Here we present a novel approach for advancing natural hydrogen exploration through the analysis of headspace gas of agitated groundwater extracted from dedicated shallow boreholes to better estimate the hydrogen gas flux and its variations with time."
Natural H2 3.15. 02 Jan 2024, Science Direct, Deep learning–assisted phase equilibrium analysis for producing natural hydrogen, "Here, natural hydrogen industry chain are provided to control the possible phase transitions under certain environmental conditions that may be observed in the natural hydrogen reservoirs, storage and transportation facilities."
Natural H2 3.16. 01 Jan 2024, Science Direct, Natural hydrogen in the energy transition: Fundamentals, promise, and enigmas, "Current estimations suggest that approximately 20 Mtpy of natural hydrogen are escaping from the surface into the atmosphere [12]. Most of this hydrogen travels up to the ionosphere and ends up escaping into space."
Economist Natural H2 3.17. 20 Dec 2023, The Economist, Meet the boffins and buccaneers drilling for hydrogen - The search is on for a clean fuel that could one day replace oil, "Unlike actual gold, hydrogen is spectacularly useful. As a fuel, in theory it could power cars, buses, planes and ships. It could be burned in power plants, generating electricity."
Natural H2 3.18. 13 Dec 2023, Hydrogen Insight, 'Energy of the future' | French president promises 'massive funding' for natural hydrogen, "French President Macron: “To strengthen us, I wanted to tell you here that we are going to go further and that in ‘France 2030’, we are going to provide massive funding to explore the potential of what we call white H2, that is to say natural H2."
NYT Natural H2 3.19. 04 Dec 2023, New York Times, It Could Be a Vast Source of Clean Energy, Buried Deep Underground, "Natural hydrogen, also called white hydrogen because of its purity, could be a game changer, scientists say, because it is a potential source of clean energy continuously generated by the earth. Hydrogen reservoirs form when heated water meets iron-rich rocks."
Natural H2 3.20. 04 Dec 2023, SA Gov, Natural hydrogen, "Australia could be one of the most promising areas for H2 exploration, de facto a couple of wells already found H2, whereas they were drilled to look for hydrocarbons. The sum of areas from where H2 is seeping overpasses 45 km2 in Kangaroo Island as in the Yorke Peninsula."
Natural H2 3.21. 24 Oct 2023, AUS Gov, Geoscience Australia supporting hydrogen research, "There is interest in the presence of natural H2 accumulations and the potential discovery of H2 gas fields. The extent of this natural H2 is not well understood, but there are reports of high concentrations of natural H2 in Australia."
Natural H2 3.22. 05 Sep 2023, NASA, Natural Hydrogen: Circular Depressions Seep Hydrogen Gas, "Australia may be a treasure map of sorts for a natural source of clean energy. Clusters of so-called “fairy circles” in the North Perth Basin of Western Australia have been found to seep hydrogen gas from their perimeters."
Natural H2 3.23. 14 Aug 2023, Frontiers in Earth Science, Natural H2 seeps or salt lakes: how to make a difference? Grass Patch example, Western Australia, "This study soil-gas sampling method includes a monitoring procedure compatible with time series measurements via a portable gas analyser, getting rid of artificially produced H2. Low H2 values -30 ppm measured."
Natural H2 3.24. 22 Jul 2023, Nature, Characterization of the spontaneously recharging natural hydrogen reservoirs of Bourakebougou in Mali, "When comparing a H2 reservoir system to classical oil and gas reservoir systems, the results show that the H2 reservoir is a dynamic system that is progressively recharged in H2-rich gas at the production timescale."
Natural H2 3.25. 04 Jul 2023, CSIRO, The earth might hold huge stores of natural hydrogen – and prospectors are already scouring South Australia for it, "Ancient, iron-rich rocks can produce hydrogen. So can rocks such as serpentinite, and basalt produced from magma emerging in the deep ocean, or from organic-rich rocks such as coals or shales."
Natural H2 3.26. 24 Feb 2020, ScienceDirect, The occurrence and geoscience of natural hydrogen: A comprehensive review, "We demonstrates molecular H2 is much more widespread in nature than previously thought. H2 has been detected at high concentrations, in all types of geologic environment. A critical evaluation of all the proposed mechanisms regarding the origin of natural H2 shows the origin is potentially most likely explanation for its abundance in nature."

FC Cold Start 4.1. 08 Jul 2024, ScienceDirect, Study on Cold Start of Fuel Cell Stack Combined with Liquid Heating and Fuel Cell Self-starting, "The novelty of the study is that waste heat stored in PCM is introduced to cold start process to reduce energy consumption. To further optimize start speed and ratio of energy consumption, a new cold start method combined with liquid heating and fuel cell self-starting is proposed."
FC PEM 4.2. 28 Jun 2024, Nature, eReaxFF force field development for BaZr0.8Y0.2O3-δ solid oxide electrolysis cells applications, "The reaction rate of an electrocatalyst system can be improved by increasing the number of active sites on a given electrode—e.g., through increased loading or improved catalyst structuring to expose more active sites to facilitate binding different reaction intermediates and transition states in different ways."
FC PEM 4.3. 24 Jun 2024, ScienceDirect, Grid-neutral hydrogen mobility: Dynamic modelling & techno-economic assessment of a renewable-powered H2 plant, "Here is unique way for evaluating environmental effect of PEMFCs by integrating end-point & mid-point LCA techniques in comprehensive analysis of a 1 kW PEMFC system. This method offers an in-depth overview of the long-term effects on human health, ecosystems..."
FC PEM 4.4. 15 Jun 2024, ScienceDirect, Fabrication framework for metal supported solid oxide cells via tape casting, "This study addresses the main challenges in fabrication of MSOCs using tape casting, to provide a robust framework for fabrication parameters, allowing technology to advance. We show the dispersion of powder particles & physical & chemical characteristics of binder play a crucial role in defect free MSOCs."
FC PEM 4.5. "14 Jun 2024, MDPI, Environmental Impact Assessment of a 1 kW Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell: A Mid-Point and End-Point Analysis "Here we provide a unique way for evaluating the environmental effect of PEMFCs by integrating end-point and mid-point LCA techniques in a comprehensive cradle-to-gate analysis of a 1 kW PEMFC system. This method offers an in-depth overview of the long-term effects on human health, ecosystems, resources..."
FC PEM 4.6. 08 Jun 2024, ScienceDirect, Exploring new solid electrolyte support matrix materials for molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs), "The fuel cell using LNT as a solid matrix has extended stability and higher power output density than the cells with YSZ and doped ceria as solid supports. This could be related to the involving sodium in the perovskite structure, stabilizing the composition in molten carbonates and surface properties."
FC PEM 4.7. 08 Jun 2024, ScienceDirect, Effect of the graphene-based material on the conductivity & corrosion behaviour of PTFE/graphene-based composites coatings on titanium for PEM fuel cell bipolar plates, "We evaluate the effect of graphene-based nanoplatelets of different origins & characteristics on the conductivity & corrosion protection of titanium substrates coated with polymer composites of PTFE + graphene-based materials deposited by dip coating."
FC PEM 4.8. 06 Jun 2024, ScienceDirect, Perspectives on Microbial Fuel Cells Cathode Improvement for Bioenergy Generation, "We examine the importance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) as a source of renewable energy generation. The major focus was on techniques of improving the output of MFCs via its cathode. The addition of catalyst on cathode surface, upscale integration of MFCs and antifouling of gas diffusion electrodes used in MFCs were discussed."
FC PEM 4.9. 01 Jun 2024, ScienceDirect, Significance of new geometry of flow channels in proton exchange membrane fuel cell with comparing experimental and numerical methods, "In this analysis the effect of changing the geometry of a PEM fuel cell from planner type to different geometry such as tubular, rectangular, elliptical, and triangular on the PEM fuel cell’s performance. The study is done numerically with steady, compressible, isothermal, and two-phase flow models."
FC PEM 4.10. 08 May 2024, ScienceDirect, Transition Metal Oxide Catalytic Abilities for Fuel Cell Applications: Density Functional Theory (DFT) Studies, "This work evaluates the catalytic capabilities of the crystallographic surfaces of these oxides using DFT via CASTEP & DMol3, as well as the Adsorption Locator module. Surfaces include CoWO4, Co3WO8, & TiWO4, have different levels of stability and reactivity when it comes to absorbing H2 & O2."
FC PEM 4.11. 06 May 2024, ScienceDirect, Development of a dynamic mathematical model of PEM electrolyser for integration into large-scale power systems, "Here, a developed model of the PEM electrolyser is presented. This article distinguishes itself from prior literature models by incorporating detailed mathematical modules not only for the anode, cathode, membrane and voltage but also for the thermal compartment."
FC PEM 4.12. 18 Apr 2024, ScienceDirect, High-temperature degradation of tetragonal zirconia in solid oxide fuel and electrolysis cells: a critical challenge for long-term durability and a solution, "In this work, we present our recent finding that 3YSZ is, in fact, susceptible to high-temperature degradation (HTD) after operation over 8,500-10,000 h. The degradation leads to substantial embrittlement of the cells."
FC PEM 4.13. 17 Apr 2024, MDPI, On the Scalability of a Membrane Unit for Ultrapure Hydrogen Separation, "In this work, the results obtained with the MeSMeR facility have been compared with previous experimental campaigns conducted on single-tube units, and the scalability of the permeation results has been proven. Moreover, post-test simulations have been performed based on single-tube finite element modeling, proving the scalability of the numerical outcomes."
FC PEM 4.14. 12 Apr 2024, ScienceDirect, Recent progress in understanding the dispersion stability of catalyst ink for proton exchange membrane fuel cell and water electrolyzer, "The novelty of this review is to provide a guide to understand the importance of catalyst ink dispersion stability for manufacturing MEAs at scale-up level. This is addressed through targeting fundamental interaction behavior and physical properties of the ink materials."
FC PEM 4.15. 06 Apr 2024, ScienceDirect, Revealing the critical role of low voltage excursions in enhancing PEM fuel cell catalyst degradation by automotive H2/air potential cycling experiments, "Here we study the impact of short-stops on catalyst degradation and their critical role. Then we clarify which is the voltage profile characteristic responsible for promotion of aging, a parametric analysis to investigate both short-stop properties & operational history,"
FC PEM 4.16. 05 Apr 2024, Nature, Advanced efficient energy management strategy based on state machine control for multi-sources PV-PEMFC-batteries system, "Here we proposed an energy management system for MSRS depending on the objective of the stabilization of the DC bus’s stability & the need for the load demand. The primary source of system energy is the photovoltaic array & backup power source is comprised of a secondary battery fuel cell."
FC PEM 4.17. 26 Mar 2024, ACS, Impact of Current Collectors with Different Electrocatalytic Activities on H2 Production in Microbial Electrolysis Cells with Flowable Cathodes, "Superior HER activities & H2 production rates with NF are due to the relatively higher electrocatalytic activities of NF itself and the larger specific surface area (128 m2/m2-projected area)."
FC PEM 4.18. 22 Mar 2024, ACS, Bipolar Membrane Seawater Splitting for Hydrogen Production: A Review, "Bipolar membranes create two distinct pH environments and selectively facilitate water dissociation by allowing the passage of protons and hydroxide ions, while acting as a barrier to cations and anions."
FC PEM 4.19. 21 Mar 2024, ScienceDirect, Performance of rime-ice algorithm for estimating the PEM fuel cell parameters, "Here the performance of a recent metaheuristics method called the RIME method is examined for solving the PEMFC issue plus and estimation of six parameters of PEMFC is performed using the RIME technique."
FC PEM 4.20. 14 Mar 2024, Nature, Ion solvation kinetics in bipolar membranes and at electrolyte–metal interfaces, "Here results indicate that kinetics of OH− (de)solvation are slower than for H+ (de)solvation and that there exists a universal amount of capacitive charge needed to induce electric fields that impact the interfacial entropy of water."

H2 Metal hydride Store 5.1. 01 Jul 2024, ScienceDirect, Structure modification of magnesium hydride for solid hydrogen storage, "Here we present the hydrogen storage mechanisms by solid materials, particularly metal materials, along with their kinetic and thermodynamic principles. Additionally, synthesis methods of these materials using ball milling, thin film deposition, and direct current plasma technology are systematically classified and described."
H2 Bio Store 5.2. 12 Jun 2024, ScienceDirect, Sensitivity analysis and calibration for a two-dimensional state-space model of metal hydride storage tanks based on experimental data, "In most mathematical models of MH tanks we consider the mass flow rate as a known quantity to establish the mass balance equations & a working condition that is rarely considered in the literature is the behavior of charging & discharging controlled by external pipe pressure."
H2 Bio Store 5.3. 11 Jun 2024, ScienceDirect, Mixing Dynamics & Recovery Factor during H2 Storage in Depleted Gas Reservoirs, "In this work, a detailed analysis is conducted to more clearly illustrate & enhance the understanding of the impacts of initial hydrocarbon gas recovery factor, reservoir permeability, perforation lengths, intelligent completion, and local fractures on. The rest of the paper maintains this structure: It starts with a theoretical discussion."
H2 COMPRESSOR 5.4. 25 May 2024, MDPI, Hydrogen Gas Compression for Efficient Storage: Balancing Energy and Increasing Density, "The study analyzes the compression of hydrogen in gaseous form, aiming to identify technological objectives with medium-term potential. It addresses material-related challenges, such as maximum temperature limits, and explores feasible technological solutions & energy requirements & technological objectives are evaluated."
H2 Storage Type IV 5.5. 22 May 2024, Hexagon Purus, Hydrogen high-pressure Type 4 cylinders, Our in-house test capabilities for most relevant requirements (hydraulic, leak, burst testing, bonfire, penetration, permeation) ensure highest safety and quality standards. To ensure highest quality standards, our manufacturing facilities are certified according to ISO 9001:2008 and IATF 16949:2016, whereas our tanks comply with various international standards."
H2 Storage 5.6. 21 May 2024, ScienceDirect, Evaluating reservoir suitability for large-scale hydrogen storage: A preliminary assessment considering reservoir properties, "The objective of this paper is to present a method for the initial evaluation of the suitability of H2 storage in a depleted gas reservoir. The screening criteria are based on reservoir geometry, petrophysics, tectonics, and formation fluids."
H2 Storage 5.7. 10 May 2024, MDPI, Unstable Metal Hydrides for Possible On-Board H2 Storage, "This review summarizes current developments of metal hydrides, including intermetallic compounds & complex hydrides, & offers some guidelines for future developments. Since lab H2 uptake measurements are limited to 200 bar, a possible threshold for defining unstable hydrides could be a value of their equilibrium pressure of peq > 200 bar for T below 100 °C."
H2 Storage 5.8. 29 Apr 2024, CSIRO, Making hydrogen while the sun shines, "Researchers show abundant renewable energy can be used to make H2, to be stored and then converted back into electricity when it’s needed. Organisations in Australia and around the world are exploring whether underground caverns are a safe & cost-effective medium term H2 storage method. We are researching the feasibility of storing H2 in depleted gas fields in Victoria."
H2 Storage 5.9. 08 Apr 2024, Nature, Microbial induced wettability alteration with implications for Underground Hydrogen Storage, "In this study, the captive-bubble cell approach is used to investigate the impact of microbial activity on wettability for the hydrogen/brine/rock system. Experiments are carried out using “living brine” containing sulphate reducing microbes,"
H2 Storage 5.10. 22 Mar 2024, NPROXX, Pioneering High-Pressure Hydrogen Storage Solutions, "Safety is a major priority in the hydrogen industry and NPROXX has set the standard for safe high-pressure hydrogen storage. NPROXX Type 4 tanks are designed with the utmost care, adhering to rigorous international safety standards, including UNECER134, EN17339 ISO11515 and many more."
H2 Nano Storage 5.11. 21 Mar 2024, Nano-Micro Letters, Boosting Hydrogen Storage Performance of MgH2 by Oxygen Vacancy-Rich H-V2O5 Nanosheet as an Excited H-Pump, "Herein, ultrathin hydrogenated V2O5 nanosheets with abundant oxygen vacancies were prepared by the solvothermal method and subsequent hydrogenation strategy, which were then used as catalysts to improve the hydrogen storage properties of MgH2."
H2 Storage 5.12. 19 Mar 2024, ScienceDirect, Comparative study of three H2 geological storages in deep aquifers simulated in high-pressure reactors, "Here, 3 x experiments were carried out to simulate aquifers used for underground geological storage. Being sampled from monitoring wells close to the gas‒liquid interface, formation waters were greatly exposed to stored CH4."
H2 Storage 5.13. 16 Mar 2024, ScienceDirect, Investigation of pre-cooling strategies for heavy-duty hydrogen refuelling, "The aim of this work is to investigate the impact of adaptable cold-fill on the hydrogen temperature trend during the refuelling process as well as to identify optimization potentials of the cooling process regarding cooling energy demand."
H2 Storage 5.14. 24 Feb 2024, Energy Vault, H-VAULT™ H2 energy storage for multi-day resilience, "H-VAULT™ is a family of hybrid energy storage system configurations designed to ensure the reliability of critical community infrastructure. The H-VAULT™ product combines the fast-response functionality of batteries with the longer-duration capabilities of H2-fuel cell combinations."
H2 Storage 5.15. 17 Feb 2024, MDPI, An Exploration of Safety Measures in H2 Refueling Stations: Delving into H2 Equipment and Technical Performance, "We explore several aspects including the sophisticated architecture of H2 dispensers, reliable leak-detection systems, emergency shut-off mechanisms, and the implementation of fire-suppression tactics."
H2 Storage 5.16. 06 Feb 2024, Nature, Small-pore hydridic frameworks store densely packed H2, "Here, magnesium borohydride framework that has small pores and a partially negatively charged non-flat interior for hydrogen and nitrogen uptake. H2 and nitrogen occupy distinctly different adsorption sites in the pores, with very different limiting capacities of 2.33 H2 and 0.66 N2 per Mg(BH4)2."
H2 Storage 5.17. 31 Jan 2024, Nature, Experimentally validated design principles of heteroatom-doped-graphene-supported Ca single-atom materials for non-dissociative chemisorption solid-state H2 storage, "Design by first-principles calculations analysis & focused experimental verifications of heteroatom-doped-graphene-supported Ca single-atom carbon nanomaterials."
H2 Storage 5.18. 18 Jan 2024, MDPI, Computational Modeling of High-Speed Flow of Two-Phase Hydrogen through a Tube with Abrupt Expansion, "Here suitable values of the relaxation time parameter are determined by comparing numerical results with test data for high-speed two-phase hydrogen flows in a configuration involving a tube with sudden expansion, which is common in practical systems."
H2 Storage 5.19. 08 Jan 2024, Cygnet Texkimp, National Composites Centre commissions Cygnet Texkimp filament winding machine for new era of hydrogen vessel development, "Composites company Cygnet Texkimp has delivered a 4-axis filament winding machine to NCC to form part of a new state-of-the-art manufacturing and test facility for H2 transportation & storage."
H2 Storage 5.20. 02 Jan 2024, ScienceDirect, A review on the factors of liner collapse in type IV hydrogen storage vessels, "Hydrogen permeation and rapid decompression cause liner collapse in type IV tanks and increased permeability of polymeric liner increases chance of liner collapse. Correlation exists between thermo-mechanical properties of polymers and permeability."

H2 FCEV 6.1. 27 Jun 2024, HDrive International, Pure Hydrogen expands sales pipeline with supply of hydrogen-powered waste collection vehicle to the City of Newcastle, "The waste collection vehicle will be supplied by Pure Hydrogen subsidiary HDrive International. This lease with Pure Hydrogen marks the company’s fifth order for HFC waste collection vehicles in Australia, alongside advanced trials for a hydrogen-powered prime mover."
H2 FCEV 6.2. 20 Jun 2024, H2X, Modular and Scalable Technology: Revolutionising Hydrogen Mobility, "H2X Global pioneers the world’s sole H2-powered 4×4 vehicles, showcasing a blend of innovation & sustainability. Our lineup includes retrofitted H2-powered trucks, ingeniously converted from internal combustion engines & newly developed FCEV platform vehicles."
H2 FCEV 6.3. 18 Jun 2024, Nature, Declining costs imply fast market uptake of zero-emission trucks, "We derive future cost developments for price-setting components of zero-emission trucks, centred on batteries & fuel cells, by meta-forecasting from more than 200 sources. Different cost expectations related to the literature sources, from near-market to scientific, were analysed and discussed with respect to consistency and level of ambition."
H2 FCEV 6.4. 04 May 2024, Nature, Effect of hydrogen embrittlement on mechanical characteristics of DLC-coating for hydrogen valves of FCEVs, "In FCEVs the H2 valve requires particularly high durability due to being the component that operates frequently during FCEV operation. The plunger, part of the H2 valve is made of steel that is worn by friction with the core due to the reciprocating motion."
H2 FCEV Rail 6.5. 15 Apr 2024, IEC, Safety and certification - All aboard the hydrogen train, "EU Regulators in 22 countries plus Norway signed an agreement known as the “important projects of common European interest” in the H2 sector known as the IPCEI Hy2Tech programme. Over the course of 2022, some 50 projects were granted over EUR 10 billion in public funding, which was expected to generate an additional EUR 15 billion in private investments."
Stadler FLIRT H2 6.6. 25 Mar 2024, Stadler, STADLER’S H2-POWERED TRAIN FLIRT H2 ACHIEVES A NEW GUINNESS WORLD RECORDS TITLE, "The FLIRT H2 has been entered into Guinness World Records database for the longest distance of 2,803km achieved by a pilot H2 fuel cell electric multiple unit passenger train without refueling or recharging. This achievement underlines Stadler's innovative strength & technological leadership in sustainable rail transport."
China H2 Rail 6.7. 22 Mar 2024, CRRC, China's first homegrown hydrogen-powered urban train completes test, "This urban train has a built-in H2 power system with maximum cruising range over 1,000 km. Test data also shows that the average energy consumption of the train is 5 kWh per km, which is on par with world leading levels."
BMW iX5 6.8. 14 Mar 2024, BMW, The BMW iX5 Hydrogen proves its suitability for everyday use even at high temperatures, "The iX5 Hydrogen concept vehicle refuels at designated hydrogen fueling stations. It is an easy and simple process, similar to refueling at a typical gas station. The BMW iX5 can be refilled with gaseous hydrogen in approximately 3-4 minutes, much faster than a battery-powered electric vehicle."
Toyota Mirai 6.9. 01 Mar 2024, Toyota, Introducing the 2024 Mirai: new technology features for Toyota’s flagship fuel cell electric sedan, "New enhancements reinforce the 2nd generation Mirai’s status as lagship model for Toyota’s multi-path technology strategy for reducing and ultimately eliminating carbon emissions. The H2 FCEV fuel cell provides smooth, powerful and near silent performance, with no exhaust emissions other than pure water."
Stadler FLIRT H2 6.10. 28 Feb 2024, Honda, Honda Presents World Premiere of Production Model of “CR-V e:FCEV” at H2 & FC EXPO Tokyo, "The CR-V FCEV hydrogen fuel from the high-pressure hydrogen tanks circulates through the fuel cell stack to generate the power that drives the motor, creating reliable power for the journey ahead."
Daimler Linde 6.11. 07 Feb 2024, Daimler/Linde, Safe, Fast and Simple: Daimler Truck and Linde Set New Standard for Liquid Hydrogen Refueling Technology, "Daimler Truck and Linde Engineering present a jointly developed refueling technology: Compared to gas H2, subcooled LH2 allows higher storage density, greater range, faster refueling, lower costs & superior energy efficiency."
Nikola 6.12. 07 Feb 2024, Nikola, IMC Unveils Design of its 50 Nikola Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Trucks at Grand Opening of Sustainable Facility, " IMC is responding to the growing demand for sustainable transportation and the deployment of these hydrogen-powered trucks will be utilized in IMC’s operations primarily in Calif., as well as in Ariz. and Nev."
IEEE 6.13. 30 Jan 2024, IEEE, A new traction system with asymmetrical six-phase permanent magnet synchronous motors for hydrogen trains, "The proposed traction system has two three-phase inverters feeding separately the six-phase machine and controlled to achieve optimal power sharing between the FC and the battery."
MIT 6.14. 10 Jan 2024, MIT, The future of motorcycles could be H2 - MIT Electric Vehicle Team builds a unique H2 fuel cell–powered electric motorcycle, "One of the team’s goals for the project is to make available an open-source design and “we want to provide this bike as a platform for researchers and for education"
Alstrom 6.15. 10 Jan 2024, Symbio, StackPack 75 covers a wide range of automotive applications, medium duty trucks and city buses, "StackPack 75 is fully compliant with applicable regulations and the ISO 26262 standard. POWER (net1) - 75 kW; STACK POWER DENSITY - 4,9 kW/liter; DURABILITY - 20,000 hours (Heavy Duty); 7,000 hours (Light Duty); WEIGHT - 80 Kg"
Alstrom 6.16. 06 Jan 2024, Alstom Coradia Stream H, Green traction solutions for regional trains, "Coradia Stream H is a fuel cell-powered regional train that enables clean and sustainable service designed to ensure excellent performance. Fueling trains with hydrogen produced from renewable energies eliminates emissions of greenhouse gases."
China H2 IC 6.17. 14 Dec 2023, ACS, Research and Development of Hydrogen-Fueled Internal Combustion Engines in China, "A review and analysis of developmental research of HICE with optimization control method of combustion process, mechanism & suppression method of abnormal combustion, influence regularity of H2 injection parameters & H2 injection modes on H2–air mixture."
Ca H2 NO 6.18. 12 Dec 2023, Nature, California’s zero-emission vehicle adoption brings air quality benefits yet equity gaps persist, "Here, we quantify ZEV adoption at the census tract level in California from 2015 to 2020 and project it to 2035 when all new passenger vehicles sold are expected to be ZEVs."
Stadler H2 Trains 6.19. 16 Oct 2023, Stadler, MORE HYDROGEN TRAINS FOR THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA, "Stadler design of the battery fuel cell train is changing the US rolling stock industry for alternative propulsion systems, combining Stadler top quality and reliability to drive innovation transforming railways in America."
BMW iX5 6.20. 16 Oct 2023, Nature, Development of a mobile laboratory system in hydrogen fuel cell buses and evaluation of the performance for COVID-19 RT-PCR testing, "In this study, we evaluated the performance of a mobile laboratory system on HFC buses by focusing on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for COVID-19."

Joby Aviation Hydrogen 7.1. 11 Jul 2024, Joby Aviation, Joby demonstrates potential for emissions-free regional journeys with landmark 523-mile (841 km) hydrogen-electric flight, "Landmark 523 mile flight, with water as the only by-product; Flight demonstrates potential for emissions-free regional travel; Hydrogen-electric program supported through Joby’s partnership with the U.S. Air Force’s Agility Prime program."
Joby Aviation Hydrogen 7.2. 27 Jun 2024, Auora Aviation, Fuel Cell Powers SKIRON-XLE sUAS for Long Range Reconnaissance, "Aurora uses a customized version of UGCS-Defense, which meets international STANAG 4586 standards as well the US Army’s Interoperability standards, Modular Open Systems Approach to software and hardware interoperability, plus Trillium payloads & fuel cell from Intelligent Energy."
AMSL Aero Hydrogen eVTOL 7.3. 19 Jun 2024, AMSL Aero, HOW THE MISSION FOR NEXT GENERATION OF eVTOL AIRCRAFT IS EVOLVING, "Sydney-based company AMSL Aero recently secured federal government funding to develop an autonomous VTOL firefighting aircraft: eight-motor, lightweight, box-wing design, with a hydrogen-electric powertrain capable of delivering up to 540nm of range at speeds of up to 160kt."
Aviation LH2 PEM Fuel Cell 7.4. 23 May 2024, Airbus, Airbus takes superconductivity research for hydrogen-powered aircraft a step further, "Cryoprop will confirm the potential of superconducting technologies for future aircraft, assessing all aspects related to safety, industrialisation, maintenance & operations, and give Airbus opportunity to develop high-level, in-house expertise & foster a new ecosystem to accelerate the introduction of new products."
Aviation LH2 PEM Fuel Cell 7.5. 16 May 2024, Airbus, Innovative aviation liquid hydrogen project launched, "The Ground Operations of LIquid hydrogen AircrafT project* will receive funding of €10.8 million from the EU’s Horizon Europe Framework Programme via the European Climate, Infrastructure & Environment Executive Agency. In four years project will show high-flow LH2 handling & refuelling technologies can be developed & used safely & reliably for airport operations."
Aviation PEM Fuel Cell 7.6. 15 Apr 2024, ScienceDirect, Optimal design of proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems for regional aircraft, "The results show that it is beneficial to optimize these performance criteria simultaneously in a pareto optimization problem. The aircraft’s electrical power demand of 3.12 MW is provided by ten identical 312 kW fuel cell systems that are distributed along the wing."
Aviation Fuel Cell 7.7. 18 Mar 2024, ScienceDirect, Optimal design of a hydrogen-powered fuel cell system for aircraft applications, "The aim of this work is to evaluate the applicability of this technology to an existing regional aircraft in order to assess its electrification, with the aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and achieving sustainability goals."
Airbus Aviation 7.8. 18 Mar 2024, Airbus, HIA Milestone Delivery Report lists critical next steps for UK to be leader in global hydrogen aviation race, "The Hydrogen in Aviation alliance is calling for a comprehensive industrial strategy for aviation to ensure the UK is a global leader in the development of hydrogen aviation."
Plug Power UAS 7.9. 01 Mar 2024, Plug Power, High Specific Energy Means More Time in the Air for a Fuel Cell UAV, "Hydrogen fuel cells for aerospace provide high specific energies (Wh/kg) for longer-duration flights and come with the added benefit of fast fueling, allowing customers to maximize the utilization of these assets and setting several world records for endurance flights through the use of EnergyOr’s innovative and proprietary fuel cell technology."
ZeroAvia 7.10. 28 Feb 2024, ZeroAvia, ZeroAvia Selected to Work with the UK Civil Aviation Authority on Hydrogen Readiness "ZeroAvia is developing hydrogen-electric (fuel cell) engines for aviation, already flying a prototype system in a Dornier 228 testbed under a CAA Permit to Fly and has submitted its application to certify its first 600kW engine, ZA600."
InterestingEngineering 7.11. 09 Feb 2024, InterestingEngineering, Hydrogen-powered drones get a major boost with new fuel cell membrane "Previous research has attempted to use radical scavengers and hydrocarbon electrolyte membranes to solve the problem but found limited success. The research teams at Incheon and Harvard Universities collaborated to develop a new polymer electrolyte membrane that is resistant to operational fatigue."
Aviation H2 Fuel Cell 7.12. 29 Jan 2024, Modelon, 2024 Innovations in Aircraft Hydrogen Storage, "Hydrogen is well-suited to flight. Hydrogen is light and energy-dense, yielding roughly three times more energy storage per unit mass than jet fuel. More importantly, hydrogen fuel cells are technically free of carbon emissions. These flights become truly carbon-free by sourcing green hydrogen produced entirely through renewable energy (as all the industry leaders plan to do)."
NPS Potion PEM Fuel Cell 7.13. 23 Jan 2024, NPS, NPS POTION Software Helps UAV Break Records During Arctic Test Flight, "Central to the project’s achievements was the development of optimal trajectory planning software emulating the energy-conserving flight patterns of migrating birds navigating atmospheric wind rivers. In the realm of energy-efficient flight, characterized by low airspeeds and altitudes, susceptibility to the adverse effects of strong winds and icing is amplified."
Sirius Aviation 7.14. 14 Jan 2024, Sirius Aviation, SIRIUS AVIATION TO UNVEIL HYDROGEN-POWERED BUSINESS JET, "Sirius Jet is a fully electric, zero-emissions, vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft designed to blend the aerodynamics of a jet with the versatility of airplanes and helicopters, powered by a hydrogen-electric ducted fan propulsion system."
Heven drones 7.15. 27 Nov 2023, HevenDrones, Hydrogen-powered drones could fly longer, farther, "Heven Drones' H2D200 can carry up to 10lbs — twice what a typical electric drone of its size can carry & has a potential range of 317 miles, with up to four hours of flight time. The H2D250 can carry up to 22lbs and has a potential range of 466 miles, with up to eight hours of flight time."
Airbus Condor 7.16. 16 Nov 2023, Airbus, Contrail-chasing Blue Condor makes Airbus’ first full hydrogen-powered flight, "The modified glider at the centre of Airbus UpNext’s hydrogen contrail-studying experiment, Blue Condor, made its first hydrogen-powered flight over Nevada US 8 Nov. The flight was Airbus first ever to use hydrogen as the sole fuel source."
Scramjet nozzles 7.17. 01 Nov 2023, Nature, Application of multi-extruded fuel injectors for mixing enhancement of hydrogen gas at scramjet engine: computational study, "The findings reveal that the use of extruded nozzles and inner air jet can significantly improve fuel mixing and distribution by enhancing the vortices between injectors."
Honeywell Aerospace 7.18. 15 Sep 2023, NREL, Honeywell Aerospace and NREL Partner To Scale Novel Hydrogen Fuel Storage Solution for Drones, "This prototype supports the commercialization of a novel cartridge-based hydrogen fuel storage solution for UAVs. The project, Fuel Additives for Solid Hydrogen (FLASH) Carriers in Electric Aviation, is a new hydrogen carrier technology."
H2FLY Germany LH2 7.19. 07 Sep 2023, H2FLY Germany, H2FLY And Partners Complete World’s First Piloted Flight of Liquid Hydrogen Powered Electric Aircraft, "The aircraft uses LH2 to power a H2-electric fuel cell system that powered the aircraft for the entire flight which lays the foundation for long-range flight with LH2 doubling the range to 1,500km compared to gaseous H2."
Aviation LH2 7.20. 23 Jun 2023, ACS, Liquid Hydrogen: A Mirage or Potent Solution for Aviation’s Climate Woes?, "In this study, we focus our investigation on which fuel supply chains and conversion technologies can lower the WTWa climate impact of commercial aircraft. We do not, however, analyze issues of cost or scalability."

NATO Fuel Cell 8.1. 08 Jul 2024, NATO Energy Security, Executive Summary of the field experiment conducted by NATO ENSEC COE in the summer of 2023, utilizing Hydrogen Fuel Cell technology within the military environment "The field trial, conducted at French military site in Gergy “CIEP,” was a unique endeavor that provided a “close to mission” environment. The trial involved using 2xH2 fuel cells for 400W & 1000W."
MALVOS Fuel Cell 8.2. 08 May 2024, Janes, DSA 2024: Malvus Sense unveils hydrogen-electric-powered VTOL UAS "Malaysian firm Malvus Sense unveiled the CW-25H, a new H2-electric-powered vertical take-off & landing in collaboration with Chinese UAS firm JOUAV at the Defence Services Asia 2024. Powered by hydrogen-electric hybrid technology, the CW-25H has a flight time of up to 330 minutes. The two companies are collaborating on UASs for the Malaysian Armed Forces."
Medical H2 drone 8.3. 22 Apr 2024, University of Sydney, Medical drone project receives $3.6 million to close health gap in rural and remote Australia "The medical drone is being designed to enable early detection, prevention, and treatment of health conditions common in rural and remote regions of Australia, such as sepsis and to actively contribute. Militarily, US Air Force: Drones essential to combat medicine."
MAC Fuel Cell 8.4. 15 Apr 2024, Military Aerospace Communications, Japan pours billions of yen into plan to build the world’s largest hydrogen fuel cell for aviation "Japan's New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organisation (NEDO), a government research agency, is using $86 million in funds to develop a 4MW hydrogen fuel cell by 2029 & by developing technology for components that make up fuel-cell electric propulsion systems for aircraft applications."
BWR Fuel Cell 8.5. 15 Apr 2024, BWR, Hydrogen Fuel Cell Microgrid Project: Energy Innovation, Integration and Assurance "BWR Innovation announces it was recently granted a two-year subcontract by The Global Connective Center, LLC as a part of an agreement with the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) to develop and integrate capabilities for a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Microgrid (H2MG) to promote operation energy resilience."
Kia EV9 8.6. 07 Apr 2024, H2 IQ, HYDROGEN FUEL CELLS: POWERING THE FUTURE OF THE US MILITARY "The US Army’s recent initiative to award up to $1.8 million for clean hydrogen-fuel technologies underscores the military’s commitment to reducing its carbon footprint. These investments are focused on pioneering solutions that could revolutionize energy consumption in combat and peacetime scenarios alike."
Honeywell Fuel Cell 8.7. 02 Apr 2024, Honeywell, Honeywell Wins Contract To Develop Hydrogen Fuel Cell Power System For U.S. Army Soldiers "Honeywell’s small fuel cell will be used on the move to charge batteries and power equipment, reducing the number of spare batteries needed by the soldier or squad. Additionally, the system is designed to complement standard electronic equipment a U.S. soldier already uses."
Cellula Robotics XLUUV 8.8. 12 Mar 2024, Cellula Robotics, Metron and Cellula Robotics, USA Sign a Strategic Partnership Agreement to Advance UUV Capabilities for Long Duration Operations in Dynamic Environments "Cellula’s Solus-LR and Solus-XR platforms (the latter with an operational range of at least 5,000 kilometers), will be equipped with Cellula’s cutting-edge hydrogen fuel cell technology."
SkyCorp H2 8.9. 11 Dec 2023, SKYCORP Technologies, e-Drone Zero "The e-Drone Zero is a surveillance-focused H2 drone. As a multirotor configuration, it is nimble, compact, resilient & capable of acting off-grid as necessary. Extended Flight Times – 90-120 min; Refueling 2-5 min; On-board Processing – Support for AI; EO-IR Payload; Comms – Radio/LTE/5G/Satcom."
Airgas H2 8.10. 10 Nov 2023, Airgas, Airgas Awarded the 2024 Military Friendly® Gold Recognition Employer Designation "Airgas, an Air Liquide company, has earned the Gold Level Recognition and been named by VIQTORY to the 2024 Military Friendly® Employers list for the second year in a row, following three consecutive years with Silver Level Designation."
IC Army H2 8.11. 06 Sep 2023, Infinite Composites, INFINITE COMPOSITES SIGNS $1.6MUSD ARMY CONTRACT TO DEVELOP CONFORMABLE FUEL TANKS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE "The DoD has created several initiatives to increase funding to develop new and improved hydrogen technologies for military vehicles including aircraft, ground support, and marine applications."
Saab Sabertooth AUV 8.12. 04 Sep 2023, Naval Technology, Recharge AUVs without a mothership: US trials hydrogen fuel cell "Saab AUV is being equipped with the Subsea Supercharger from Teledyne Energy Systems & the fuel cell uses technology to extend the AUV’s mission duration, and by reducing the requirement to reconnect with a surface vessel it also reduces the risk and the cost of operations."
H2 DHS Rescue Truck 8.13. 17 Aug 2023, US DHS, Feature Article: Using Hydrogen to Power Disaster Relief "The H2Rescue truck was built by Accelera by Cummins under a USACE ERDC-CERL cooperative agreement with funding and design assistance from S&T, the DoE, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, U.S. Army Ground Vehicle Power and Mobility, & USNRL."
H2 GM Defense 8.14. 27 Jun 2023, GM Defense, Hydrotech Fuel Cell Technology "The HYDROTEC Fuel Cell Power Cube is at the core of every GM fuel cell product. These power systems transform electrified systems into fuel cell technology rapidly. GM Defense can leverage FCPC to rapidly deploy fuel cell capabilities to enhance warfighter capability and support mission use cases."
H2 Defence Hubs 8.15. 27 May 2023, ScienceDirect, Green energy hubs for the military that can also support the civilian mobility sector with green hydrogen "Coupling the civil sector with H2 storage in military renewable energy source (RES) hubs can facilitate a green transition of the civilian and military sectors by integrating RESs at lower cost."
India H2 Defence 8.16. 24 Mar 2023, Indian Aerospace and Defence Bulletin, Green H2 Energy: The Next Big Step For Indian Armed Forces "The Green H2 Mission recently announced by the state is poised to establish New Delhi as a hub for this eco-friendly fuel in India. This fuel will be produced entirely within India, eliminating the need for the country to rely on external sources for energy supply."
US DIU 8.17. 17 Mar 2023, Hypersonix, Australia's Hydrogen Powered Hypersonix Selected by US Defence Innovation Unit for Test Vehicle "Hypersonix DART AE (Additive Engineering) vehicle makes significant use of 3D-printing and is powered by a hydrogen-fuelled SPARTAN scramjet engine, capable of flying non-ballistic flight patterns at speeds of Mach 5 to Mach 7."
Hylium  Industries 8.18. 16 Mar 2023, Hylium Industries, Hylium Industries develops creative technologies on compact hydrogen liquefaction and ultra light hydrogen storage through R&D programs, "Hylium Industries' HyliumX is a hydrogen fuel cell powered drone operating on liquefied hydrogen. The HyliumX has a flight endurance of up to five hours."
DOE Nuclear H2 8.19. 07 Mar 2023, USA Department of Energy, Nine Mile Point Begins Clean H2 Production "DOE supported the construction and installation of a low-temperature electrolysis system at the Nine Mile Point nuclear power plant that leverages the facility’s existing H2 storage system, using electricity generated at the plant to split H20 into hydrogen and oxygen."
GM Defence ISV 8.20. 21 Feb 2023, GM Defence, Delivering the Future of Power on the Battlefield "HYDROTEC fuel cell power cube is designed to be easily integrated into a variety of vehicle platforms. HYDROTEC has been field tested with thousands of run hours and proven performance and underpinning technology of GM’s Mobile Power Generation System."
HevenDrones UAV H2D55 8.21. 14 Feb 2023, HevenDrones, HevenDrones launched its first hydrogen-powered drone for defence and commercial use, the H2D55 "With 5-times greater energy efficiency than Li battery drones, H2D55 is capable of flying for 100 min with 7kg. H2D55 is programmed with a control system that contains multiple gyroscopes & supporting algorithms to extend stable flight."
TKMS Fuel Cell XLUUV 8.22. 08 Feb 2023, NavalNews, World’s Largest Submarine Drone Being Built In Germany "German shipbuilder TKMS (Thyssenkrupp Marine Systems) is preparing to start construction of their MUM (Modifiable Underwater Mothership) underwater drone. The prototype will be powered by hydrogen fuel cell AIP (air independent power) propulsion and generate about 80 kW power."
Naval News H2 8.23. 05 Feb 2023, Infinity, Infinity Fuel Cell and Hydrogen, Inc., announces first commercial contract for its air-independent H2 fuel cell power system for use in unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV’s) "The primary advantage of H2 fuel cell power in larger UUVs is the ability to extend underwater time to weeks or even months."

Deepsea H2 9.1. 12 Jul 2024, ScienceDirect, Zero-emission propulsion system featuring, Flettner rotors, batteries and fuel cells, for a merchant ship "Here we propose a zero-emission hybrid hydrogen-wind-powered propulsion system to be retrofitted to a benchmark merchant ship with a conventional propulsion system. The ship and its propulsion systems are modelled using an in-house platform."
Deepsea H2 9.2. 11 Jul 2024, MDPI, Opportunities and Challenges of Hydrogen Ports: An Empirical Study in Australia and Japan "This paper investigated the opportunities and challenges of integrating ports into hydrogen (H2) supply chains in the context of Australia and Japan because they are leading countries in the field and are potential leaders in the upcoming large-scale H2 trade."
Deepsea H2 9.3. 11 May 2024, ScienceDirect, Hydrogen as a deep sea shipping fuel: Modelling the volume requirements "This study focused on one potential future fuel for shipping: hydrogen. The justification is that other leading candidates for future fuels (such as e-methanol and e-ammonia) require a hydrogen feedstock for production. Therefore, hydrogen will always be less energy intensive to produce than either of these fuels."
Feadship Project 821 9.4. 04 May 2024, Feadship, Feadship ushers in the fuel-cell era with the launch of 118.80-metre Project 821 "Project 821 has a cryogenic fuel tank aboard that holds 92 m2 (some 4 tonnes) of hydrogen, the sixteen compact fuel cells, their switchboard connection to the DC electrical grid, and the vent stacks for the escaping water vapour added four metres to the yacht's original specification length."
Rice University AUV 9.5. 25 Apr 2024, Rice University, Underwater robot pioneers new energy-efficient buoyancy control "The robot serves as PoC for fuel cell-based buoyancy control devices to reduce operating costs for remotely operated or autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) with applications ranging from environmental monitoring & oceanographic research to military & industrial tasks, providing a quieter, more energy-efficient alternative to conventional thruster-driven AUVs."
H2R Solutions 9.6. 18 Apr 2024, LR, LR to class Torghatten Nord’s H2-powered ferry duo for Arctic sailings "Two H2-powered passenger ferries ordered by Torghatten Nord are set for Lloyd’s Register class following Approval in Principle awarded 08/2022. Designed by The Norwegian Ship Design Company to operate in the challenging waters of the Vestfjordstrekninga fjord in the Arctic Circle, the two vessels will be built at Norwegian shipyard, Myklebust Verft."
H2R Solutions 9.7. 27 Mar 2024, H2R, Waste to Value - Carbon negative & less expensive than fossil fuel alternatives "Plasma Electrolysis System is a thermodynamically favoured technology spontaneous in the forward direction & uses AI to adjust real-time system performance to allow processing of mixed & variable waste streams without a catalyst to achieve pure H2 or syngas."
H2 Energy Observer 9.8. 14 Mar 2024, EnergyObserver, Through expeditions and innovations, Energy Observer is exploring practical solutions whilst developing new technologies to accelerate ecological transition "The boat and her onboard technologies are exposed to harsh environmental conditions, shocks, and extreme temperatures, and fitted with 8 carbon fiber tanks holding a total of 62kg of hydrogen at 350 bar."
H2 Energy Sandia 9.9. 13 Mar 2024, Sandia National Laboratories, Maritime Applications for Hydrogen Fuel Cells "H2 fuel cells have a long track record of supplying efficient, clean power for a wide range of applications, including forklifts, mobile lighting, emergency backup power systems & light-duty vehicles. Conducting research for these applications, Sandia has also studied the feasibility, optimization, applications & safety of H2 fuel cells used in maritime settings."
Yanmaha Outboards 9.10. 07 Mar 2024, MAN Energy Solutions, MITSUI Performs World-First Hydrogen Test - Adapted ME-GI gas engine runs on hydrogen up to 100% load "MAN/MITSUI successfully tested a 50-bore MAN B&W two-stroke engine up to 100% load at its Tamano facility while running on hydrogen, a world-first for the maritime industry."
Yanmaha Outboards 9.11. 14 Feb 2024, Yamaha, YAMAHA DEVELOPS HYDROGEN FUEL SYSTEM WITH ROUSH AND REGULATOR MARINE, HYDROGEN OUTBOARD UNVEILED AT MIAMI INTERNATIONAL BOAT SHOW "Yamaha, Regulator and Roush displayed the boat hull, fuel system and outboard to demonstrate how hydrogen could work as a possible fuel source in a marine environment."
Sandia Solutions 9.12. 01 Feb 2024, Sandia, Exploring LH2 Tank Technology for Zero-Emission Fuel Cell Vessels "This study explored how improvements in LH2 tank weight, shape, and multiplicity might increase LH2 storage aboard watercraft using hydrogen fuel cells for propulsion. We also sought to identify the most promising R&D routes to improving LH2 tank performance in the areas investigated." Sandia Maritime Applications
Yanmar 9.13. 09 Jan 2024, Yanmar, Development of Hydrogen-Fueled 4-Stroke Engine Underway for Zero Emission Vessels "Yanmar has embarked on the development of a hydrogen-fueled 4-stroke high-speed engine for power generation for coastal vessels in Japan as part of the Nippon Foundation’s zero emission ship demonstration experiment."
Teco 2030 Fuel Cell 9.14. 30 Nov 2023, Teco 2030 Fuel Cell, TECO Marine Fuel Cell System for heavy duty marine applications "Teco 2030 Fuel Cell modular system design gives new flexibility to newbuild vessels with advanced fuel conditioning system, enabling operations on compressed and liquid H2, ammonia, methanol and other H2 based carriers."
Yanmar Maritime H2 9.15. 09 Nov 2023, Yanmar Power Technology Co., Ltd, Yanmar Makes First Delivery of Maritime Hydrogen Fuel Cell System to Hybrid Passenger Ship "When running solely on the hydrogen fuel cell system and batteries, the ship creates zero emissions, with notable reductions in power source vibrations and noise, and the elimination of exhaust gas odors."
Three Gorges Hydrogen Boat No.1 9.16. 12 Oct 2023, Three Gorges Hydrogen Boat No.1, China’s first hydrogen ship sets sail in Three Gorges area "Powered by a 500kW hydrogen fuel cell, the ship was developed by a group of companies, including the China State Shipbuilding Corporation, China Yangtze Power Corporation and Jianglong Shipbuilding, and the Wuhan Changjiang Ship Design Institute."
Norway Norled H2 9.17. 09 Oct 2023, Norled / Ballard, World’s first liquid-powered hydrogen ship, MF Hydra, is powered by Ballard’s fuel cells "The MF Hydra, owned by one of Norway’s leading ferry and express boat operators, Norled AS, is the first commercial passenger and car ferry fueled by liquid hydrogen. Powered by Ballard's FCwave™ 200kw fuel cell modules."
ABB Maritime H2 9.18. 21 Sep 2023, ABB, ABB to power Samskip’s new hydrogen-fueled container vessels "Hydrogen fuel cell technology is considered as one of the most promising solutions to support shipping industry’s decarbonization agenda, with the potential to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase energy efficiency."
H2C RIB H2 9.19. 13 Sep 2023, RINA, HYDROGEN PROPULSION EASY AS H2C FOR DUTCH RIB "Students conducted a feasibility study, leading to the development of a proof-of-concept demo RIB, equipped with hydrogen, a fuel cell, a battery and an electric motor. This powertrain was then tested in a sloop. A further prototype was developed, which later underwent testing in the Port of Den Helder."
DNV LH2 9.20. 06 Sep 2023, HC-DNV, Moss Maritime Reaches Important Milestone – Approval In Principle For LH2, Liquified Hydrogen, Carrier Containment System From DNV "Moss Maritime has been granted an Approval in Principle from the classification society DNV for a containment system for ship transport of LH2 & ship transport of liquefied hydrogen."

Green steel demand 10.1. 09 Jul 2024, ScienceDirect, Global demand for green hydrogen-based steel: Insights from 28 scenarios "We examine 28 existing scenarios to provide a cohesive view of future global demand. In the short term, the demand for green hydrogen-based steel is expected to be limited, constituting 2% of current total steel production by 2030 & transformation phase expected around 2040, marked by accelerated growth."
Boston metal 10.2. 07 Jun 2024, Boston Metal, Decarbonizing steelmaking for a net-zero future "Developed an electrolysis process eliminates need for coal in steel production. Our platform uses renewable electricity to convert all FeO grades to high-quality liquid metal which eliminates several steps in steelmaking process & does not require coke production, iron ore sintering & pelletizing, blast furnace reduction or O2 furnace refinement."
H2 Fe Process Voestalpine 10.3. 11 Apr 2024, Voestalpine, Greentec steel: landmark melting at voestalpine site Donawitz "The world’s first high-quality “green” wire rod from hydrogen-reduced pure iron and scrap at its site in Donawitz. The hydrogen-reduced pure iron was produced in the Hyfor pilot plant, while the landmark melting was carried out in the Group’s own Technikum Metallurgie research facility, a unique small but complete steel plant."
H2 Fe Process Voestalpine 10.4. 01 Mar 2024, ARENA-ANU, ANU – De-risking large-scale Australian fine-ore hydrogen ironmaking "This project was selected as part of the competitive Iron and Steel R&D Funding Round under the Transformative Research Accelerating Commercialisation (TRAC) Program to create solutions for Australian iron ore, predominantly comprised of lower grade ore from the Pilbara, and to decarbonise domestic steel production."
H2 Fe Process Metso 10.5. 25 Feb 2024, Santos, SANTOS SIGNS MOU TO SUPPORT GREEN STEEL TRANSFORMATION OF WHYALLA STEELWORKS IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA "Whyalla has all the elements to lead the green steel industry in one location – vast reserves of high-quality magnetite, abundant potential for the generation of renewable energy, a cape-sized capable sea port, skilled workforce, extensive infrastructure, a supportive community, collaborative governments."
H2 Fe Process Metso 10.6. 24 Jan 2024, Nature, Green steel from red mud through climate-neutral hydrogen plasma reduction "We show the underlying chemical reactions, pH-neutralization processes and phase transformations during this surprisingly simple and fast reduction method and establishes a sustainable toxic-waste treatment from aluminium production through using red mud."
H2 Green Steel 10.7. 22 Jan 2024, H2 Green Steel, H2 Green Steel raises more than €4 billion in debt financing for the world’s first large-scale green steel plant "Use of green hydrogen as the reducing agent for iron ore in the steel-making process is one of the highest merit order use cases for green hydrogen we have identified."
H2 Fe Process Metso 10.8. 17 Jan 2024, Metso, Circored™ 100% Hydrogen based Fine Ore Reduction as one route to CO2 neutral steelmaking "The flexible process, which produces highly metalized direct reduced iron (DRI) or hot briquetted iron (HBI) that can be fed directly to an electric arc furnace, has proven its functionality and performance in an industrial-scale demonstration plant."
H2 Fe Process Review 10.9. 12 Dec 2023, ACS, A Review on the Modeling and Simulation of Shaft Furnace Hydrogen Metallurgy: A Chemical Engineering Perspective "The discrete element method (DEM) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD)–DEM models have been used for particle-scale simulation to investigate inhomogeneous particle descent and relevant particle–particle interactions."
H2 CrMo Quench Process Review 10.10. 11 Dec 2023, MDPI, In-Situ H2 Charging Effect on the Fracture Behaviour of 42CrMo4 Steel Submitted to Various Quenched and Tempering Heat Treatments "Here, 42CrMo4 steel was subjected to quenched and tempered heat treatments using different temperature and time durations, in order to obtain different tempered martensite microstructures."
H2 Fe Process 10.11. 02 Oct 2023, Nature, How much hydrogen is in green steel? "Here two key questions that need to be answered before implementing hydrogen as a reductant at the industrial scale for green steel production: (1) How much hydrogen is in green steel? (2) Will green steel suffer from severe hydrogen embrittlement?"
Australia H2 Fe Process 10.12. 01 Oct 2023, ScienceDirect, Green steel: Synergies between the Australian iron ore industry and the production of green hydrogen "Australia could produce low-cost green steel for value-added export and there is strong correlation between hydrogen hubs and iron ore operations. Existing infrastructure supports the roll-out of the industry."
H2 Fe Process 10.13. 29 Sep 2023, Metso-Aurubis, Aurubis AG and Metso working on the decarbonization of Hamburg copper smelter "Metso’s technology, consisting of complete hydrogen-ready Outotec Anode Furnaces with hoods and auxiliary equipment used in the anode refining process with with Aurubis as a key in designing the H2-ready furnace by Metso, a first in the copper industry."
H2 LPSO Process 10.14. 10 Sep 2023, MDPI, Design of LPSO Phases in Mg-Y-Ni Alloys to Impact Hydrogenation Kinetics "This work demonstrated LPSO structures decompose into Mg phase, Mg2Ni phase, lamellar Mg/Mg-Y structures, and YHx particles and shows H2 kinetics can be impacted in Mg-Y-Ni alloys by controlling the LPSO phases using common metallurgical techniques."
H2 Fe Ore Process 10.15. 09 Sep 2023, ACS, Heat Transfer Conditions in Hydrogen-Fired Rotary Kilns for Iron Ore Processing "This work aims to map operational regimes relevant to H2-fired rotary kiln based on heat transfer conditions, including influence of flame length & presence of char particles. Compared to the conditions in an industrial case of iron ore pelletizing, applying a coal flame."
H2 LPSO Process 10.16. 30 Aug 2023, MDPI, Hydrogen-Based Direct Reduction of Iron Oxides: A Review on the Influence of Impurities "Here the advantages and challenges of using H2 as the reductant are examined, and an overview of important projects in this area is introduced & critical review of the kinetics of Fe reduction with impact of various gangue materials on reduction."
H2 Hydro Al Process 10.17. 15 Jun 2023, Hydro, World’s first batch of recycled aluminium using hydrogen fueled production "Green H2 can remove hard to abate emissions from fossil fuels, in processes where electricity is not an alternative, both in the aluminium industry and in other heavy industries, The results from this test can also be relevant for using H2 in primary aluminium casthouses."
H2 Al Process 10.18. 20 May 2023, MDPI, LCA Analysis Decarbonisation Potential of Aluminium Primary Production by Applying Hydrogen and CCUS Technologies "The results show that green H2 replacing NG is the most environmentally beneficial option, accounting for a 10.76% reduction in Global Warming Potential and 1.26% in Photochemical Ozone Formation."
H2 Steel Australia 10.19. 18 May 2023, ScienceDirect, Green steel: Synergies between the Australian iron ore industry and the production of green hydrogen "Study highlights opportunities / challenges facing Australian steel industry in contributing to decarbonization globally, underscoring the role of government in driving growth & development of a green steel industry."
H2 DRi EAF Steel Process 10.20. 04 May 2023, Nature, Global green hydrogen-based steel opportunities surrounding high quality renewable energy and iron ore deposits "In this study, we provide a baseline assessment of the global potential of renewables-powered steel production using green H2-DRI-EAF technology, where the entire supply chain is co-located at the iron ore mine vicinities."

MT Aerospace H2 11.1. 07 Jun 2024, MT Aerospace, Hydrogen is the driver for future decarbonised mobility solutions "MT Aerospace has decades of experience in the use of LH2 in rocket propulsion systems. This expertise results both from sustainable technology innovations and a large number of product-related cryogenic tests. The further development of know-how into complete cryogenic H2 storage and supply systems is a differentiating feature for MT Aerospace."
Space perspective H2 Balloon 11.2. 12 Mar 2024, PHYS.ORG, Zero-boil-off tank experiments to enable long-duration space exploration "Although the dynamic ZBO approach is complex, it promises an impressive advantage over the currently used passive methods. An assessment of one nuclear propulsion concept for Mars transport estimated that passive boil-off losses for a large LH2 tank carrying 38 tons of fuel for a three-year mission to Mars would be approximately 16 tons/year."
ESA GREEN H2 Space perspective H2 Balloon 11.3. 01 Mar 2024, ESA, Green hydrogen for Ariane 6 and more "ESA & CNES are determined to reduce the footprint of rocket launches & ground operations at Europe’s Spaceport in French Guiana & aiming to deliver low-carbon H2 generated by solar-powered electrolysis of water by 2026. Project Hyguane a portmanteau of the French words for H2, French Guiana and the local Iguanas is a €40.5M investment in a solar farm and distribution systems."
Space perspective H2 Balloon 11.4. 21 Feb 2024, Space Perspective, The world’s only carbon-neutral spaceship "Space Perspective has designed a luxurious capsule to take passengers on a six-hour trip to the stratosphere, where they can enjoy panoramic views of our humble planet—which they’ll have risen above thanks to a giant hydrogen-filled balloon."
NASA H2 11.5. 29 Jan 2024, NASA, NASA’s Moon Shot Launched Commercial Fuel Cell Industry - Agency’s technology development prepared fuel cells for tomorrow’s renewable energy grids "NASA started investing in fuel cell technology in the 1960s when rest of world was still content to be powered by fossil fuels, driving NASA to explore new ways to generate & store energy."
NASA H2 11.6. 04 Jan 2024, NASA, Magnetohydrodynamic Drive for Hydrogen and Oxygen Production in Mars Transfer "A new approach employs magnetohydrodynamic electrolytic cell that extracts & separates O2 & H2 gas without moving parts in microgravity, removing need for a forced water recirculation loop & associated ancillary equipment such as pumps or centrifuges."
Lunar H2 11.7. 15 Nov 2023, Nature, Hydrogen-bearing vesicles in space weathered lunar calcium-phosphates "Here we present transmission electron microscopy analyses of Apollo lunar soil 79221 that reveal solar-wind hydrogen concentrated in vesicles as molecular hydrogen in the calcium-phosphates apatite and merrillite."
WHA H2 11.8. 21 Sep 2023, WHA International, Will hydrogen power the future of Aerospace? "Engineers have used Hydrogen in rocket fuel and Hydrogen fuel cells since the early years of space exploration. Hydrogen high power and quick refueling potential make it an attractive clean energy option for new aerospace applications as well."
Toyota Lunar Rover H2 Fuel Cell 11.9. 21 Jul 2023, Toyota, Development Status Toyota's Manned Pressurized Rover and MHI's LUPEX Rover "Toyota Fuel cell technology cultivated through long years of vehicle development and technologies developed for the moon, fed back to Earth used to create better vehicles and develop technologies for sustainable society with Lunar Cruiser developed by Toyota."
Infinite Composites LH2 11.10. 27 Jun 2023, Infinite Composites, INFINITE COMPOSITES: TYPE V TANKS FOR SPACE "Type V Space application: the infiniteCPV is a simplified all-composite design that allows for users to take advantage of the maximum fuel storage capacity at the lowest possible weight. Removing the need for a metallic or plastic gas barrier eliminates the potential of a liner failure."
Moon Mars H2 11.11. 06 Jun 2023, Nature, Assessment of the technological viability of photoelectrochemical devices for oxygen and fuel production on Moon and Mars "Present is a refined Martian solar irradiance spectrum and establish the thermodynamic and realistic efficiency limits of solar-driven lunar water-splitting and Martian carbon dioxide reduction (CO2R) devices."
Moon Mars H2 11.12. 09 May 2023, PHYS.ORG, Researchers switch from helium to hydrogen weather balloons "The National Weather Service provided the electrolysis equipment, which uses electricity to turn water into hydrogen gas and oxygen gas, and provided regular maintenance of the equipment. The ARM Sandia facility launches two weather balloons a day for weather service."
Destinus 11.13. 27 Mar 2023, Destinus, Destinus Receives 12M Grant for H2 Flight "Destinus, a European aerospace firm specializing in high-speed H2 powered airplanes, has been chosen by the Spanish Ministry of Science’s Centro para el Desarrollo Tecnológico e Industrial program to participate in a strategic initiative to further R&D for supersonic flight utilizing H2 as fuel."
Lunar H2O 11.14. 27 Mar 2023, Nature, A solar wind-derived H2O reservoir on the Moon hosted by impact glass beads "A report on the abundance, H2 isotope composition and core-to-rim variations of H2O measured in impact glass beads from lunar soils via Chang’e-5. The impact glass beads preserve hydration signatures & display H2O consistent with inward diffusion of solar wind-derived H2O."
IJER 11.15. 21 Feb 2023, IJER, Liquid Cooling Flow Field Design and Thermal Analysis of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Space Applications "This study examined PEM fuel cell elements and cooling flow channel design for space applications. The effect of the designed flow channel on the PEM fuel cell temperature distribution was investigated. "
JAXA Honda 11.16. 19 Jan 2023, JAXA Honda, Honda Signs Research and Development Contract with JAXA Regarding Circulative Renewable Energy System Designed to Supply Electricity Supporting Living Space for People During Lunar Surface Exploration "The circulative renewable energy system combines Honda’s original high differential pressure water electrolysis system & fuel cell."
Anasphere 11.17. 01 Jan 2023, Anasphere, Hydrogen Generation for Space, "Anasphere has been developing solid-state H2 gas generators since 2011 and produce dry H2 gas at a rapid & controlled rate. The primary space-related application for these generators is the inflation of Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Deceleratorss."
FORTUNE 11.18. 06 Dec 2022, FORTUNE, Space travel is heating up—and so are rocket fuel emissions, "NASA’s Artemis I launch is the first in a series of missions to enable human exploration of the moon and Mars. The mission successfully utilized H2 to produce enough energy to power four engines with 2 million pounds of thrust. The other main by-product was water vapor."
History H2 as fuel 11.19. 18 Oct 2022, Hydrogen Fuel News, History of H2 fuel has a fascinating connection with space programs"The aerospace industry has long known that there is considerable potential using H2 as an energy source. When President Kennedy announced in 1962 that US would land on the moon within a decade, he changed the path of the history of H2 fuel."
Infinity 11.20. 27 Sep 2022, Infinity Fuel Cell and Hydrogen, Inc. "Infinity announced that their Advanced Modular Power and Energy System (AMPES) operated successfully aboard Blue Origin’s New Shepard 23 flight Sep 12, "The AMPES system is a scalable modular system that could be used to power landers, rovers, surface equipment and habitats on the moon or Mars."

Joby Aviation 12.1. 11 Jul 2024, US.APP.ACFT, Joby Aviation, Flying 523 Miles (841km), Emissions-Free: Joby's Hydrogen-Electric Demonstrator (video 2.30m)
Emerson Regulators and Relief Valves 12.2. 18 Jun 2024, US.APP.EDU, H2 NEWS, Hydrogen News First of Its Kind Solar Driven Ethylene and Hydrogen Production Revealed (video 4.50m)
Plug Power's Hydrogen Impact 12.3. 14 Jun 2024, US.APP.EDU, Plug Power, Industry Transformation: Plug Power's Hydrogen Impact (video 9.11m)
Emerson Regulators and Relief Valves 12.4. 15 May 2024, US.APP.EDU, Emerson Regulators and Relief Valves, Shaping the Future: Hydrogen Testing Facility in El Campo, Texas (video 2.35m)
Emerson Regulators and Relief Valves 12.5. 08 May 2024, US.APP.EDU, Sandia National Labs, Sandia Liquid Hydrogen Pooling Experiments: Validating Models for Safety Codes and Standards (video 4.38m)
Emerson Regulators and Relief Valves 12.6. 06 May 2024, AU.APP.EDU, Leader Associates, [IMPACT Webinar]Australia's Hydrogen Industry in 2024: Cutting-edge Project Showcase and Key Updates (video 34.50m)
Emerson Regulators and Relief Valves 12.7. 06 Apr 2024, UK.APP.ACFT, ZeroAvia & Ziroth, Why This Hydrogen Fuel Cell is Engineering Genius (video 21.42m)
Geologic Hydrogen 12.8. 11 Apr 2024, US.APP.GEO, University of Texas at Austin, April 2024: Challenges and Opportunities with Geologic Hydrogen (video 1.00.26m)
Yamaha Marine Hydrogen 12.9. 20 Mar 2024, JP.APP.GEO, Yamaha Marine, Exploring Hydrogen for the Marine Industry (video 7.43m)
Universal Hydrogen MW Fuel Cell 12.10. 02 Mar 2024, US.APP.AUTO, Toyota, 2024 Toyota Mirai Overview | Toyota (video 7.51m)
University of Melbourne / Hysata 12.11. 27 Feb 2024, AU.APP.EDU, University of Melbourne / Hysata, Bubble-free capillary water electrolysis: A new approach to industrial water electrolysis (video 58.00m)
Daimler Linde FCEV 12.12. 18 Feb 2024, EU.APP.AUTO, Daimler / Linde, Daimler Mercedes Truck and Linde Liquid Hydrogen Refueling Technology (video 2.06m)
Energy and Mining SA 12.13. 30 Jan 2024, AU.APP.EDU, Energy and Mining SA, Natural hydrogen exploration in South Australia (video 10.09m)
Airbus Fuel Cell Testing 12.14. 29 Jan 2024, EU.APP.EDU, Airbus, Countdown to #ZEROe: Episode 3 - Fuel Cell Systems Testing (video 2.48m)
Universal Hydrogen MW Fuel Cell 12.15. 27 Jan 2024, US.PROD.EDU, TED, Natural Hydrogen - clean energy right under our feet | Viacheslav Zgonnik | TEDxManhattanBeach (video 11.44m)
GM-Honda Hydrogen Fuel Cell 12.16. 27 Jan 2024, US.APP.AUTO, GM-Honda, GM & Honda Are Fueling Change With Hydrogen Fuel Cells (video 6.02m)
Sparc H2 photocatalysis 12.17. 15 Jan 2024, AU.PROD.SOLAR, SPARC Hydrogen, Sparc Hydrogen Unveils the Future of Green Hydrogen: Photocatalytic Water Splitting Project 2024 (video 1.54m)
MIT 12.18. 11 Jan 2024, US.APP.AUTO, MIT, For the love of speed: Building a hydrogen-powered motorcycle (video 4.10m)
Forvia H2 Type V H2 Storage 12.19. 11 Jan 2024, US.APP.STORE, Forvia, Forvia’s Hydrogen Fuel Tank Breakthrough - CES 2024 (video 4.31m)
Hyfindr H2 Type V H2 Storage 12.20. 11 Jan 2024, US.APP.STORE, Hyfindr, Tech Talk - Hydrogen Tank Systems - H2 refueling - Fuel Cell Technology Explained - Hyfindr Andreas (video 20.59m)
Hyfindr H2 Type V H2 Storage 12.21. 24 Nov 2023, EU.APP.PROD, CleanHydrogenJU, EU Hydrogen Research Days - Hydrogen Production (video 1:46:38 HR)
H2 Endua PEM 12.22. 23 Oct 2023, AU.APP.PEM, Endua, How Standards Help Endua Maintain Compliance and Competitiveness (video 1.44m)
Hysata CPE H2 Electrolyzer 12.23. 20 Aug 2023, AU.PROD.CFE, Hysata, Hysata's Hydrogen Electrolyzer Set to Power Real-World Generators (video 6.09m)
ITM Power PEM 12.24. 17 Aug 2023, EU.PROD.PEM ITM POWER PLC, Introducing POSEIDON - ITM Power’s 20MW electrolyser module. (video 1.58m)
BMW iX5 12.25. 10 Aug 2023, EU.APP.AUTO, BMW, The BMW iX5 Hydrogen-Powered Concept Vehicle | BMW USA (video 1.27m)
Hyundai FCEV Truck 12.26. 26 Jul 2023, EU.APP.AUTO, Hyunda1, The Hyundai XCIENT Fuel Cell Truck: Commercial Debut (video 4.26m)
BMW iX5 12.27. 11 Jul 2023, EU.APP.SMELT, DW, Can hydrogen powered plants turn steel production 'green'? | DW News (video 8.06m)
Plug Power iX5 12.28. 20 Jun 2023, US.APP.EDU, Plug Power, Plug Power's Breakthrough in Hydrogen Liquefaction - Unveiling a New Era of Energy Efficiency (video 11.34m)
Steam Methane Reforming 12.29. 30 May 2023, EU.APP.PROD, Hyfindr, Tech Talk - Hydrogen Production - Steam Methane Reforming - Hydrogen Tech Explained - Hyfindr Powers (video 29.22m)
Steam Methane Reforming 12.30. 20 Apr 2023, AU.APP.PROD, Geoscience Australia, Natural hydrogen seeps as analogues to inform monitoring of engineered geological hydrogen storage (video 28.47m)
Steam Methane Reforming 12.31. 24 Mar 2023, AU.APP.EDU, AXDRIVE, Discover the Innovative High-Tech Features of Hydrogen Electric Bicycles and Cargo Bike AX-DRIVE (video 4.27m)
TWI H2 PROD 12.32. 09 Mar 2023, AU.TE.EDU, TWI Ltd, Risk and Safety Assessment of the Scaled up Hydrogen Storage System (video 58.07m)
SA H2 PROD 12.33. 09 Mar 2023, AU.PROD.EDU, SA Energy & Mining, Green hydrogen production South Australia (video 2.15m)
Universal Hydrogen Fuel Cell 12.34. 07 Mar 2023, US.APP.ACFT, Universal Hydrogen, How Universal Hydrogen's hydrogen powered regional airliner works. (video 0.58m)
Voith Group H2 Type V H2 Storage 12.35. 24 Feb 2023, EU.APP.STORE, Voith Group, H2 tanks type 1 - type 5, technological differences and advantages (video 4.08m)
HyliumX UAV LH2 12.36. 23 Feb 2023, KR.APP.ACFT, Hylium Industries, HyliumX - Hylium Industries Liquid Hydrogen Fuel Cell Drone (video 1.19m)
Michigan Engineering 12.37. 06 Jan 2023, US.APP.EDU, Michigan Engineering, A More Efficient Method for Harvesting Hydrogen (video 1.57m)
GM US Army H2 12.38. 23 Nov 2022, US.APP.MIL, GM, US Army Testing A Hydrogen Powered Military Vehicle (video 8.05m)
Hydrogen fuel 12.39. 08 Nov 2022, EU.PROD.EDU, Thyssenkrupp, Hydrogen lead project: thyssenkrupp nucera to expand to 5 GW of annual production capacity (video 5.22m)
Hydrogen Hyperion H2 FCEV Car 12.40. 29 Oct 2022, US.PROD.EDU, Hyperion, Water Firing Hypercar with NASA Technology | Hyperion (video 11.49m)
Hysata CFE 12.41. 27 Oct 2022, AU.APP.EDU, Hysata, Hysata - Who We Are (video 1.30m)
Bosch SOFC Hydrogen fuel cell 12.42. 04 Oct 2022, EU.APP.EDU, [R1-4], Bosch, SOFC production | From cell to energy supply system (video 3.32m)
Bosch SOFC Hydrogen fuel cell 12.43. 15 Sep 2022, EU.APP.RAIL, Alstom, A closer look at the hydrogen fuel cell - and a look behind the technology (video 9.53m)
Hydrogen fuel 12.44. 14 Sep 2022, US.APP.EDU, TED, How Green Hydrogen Could End The Fossil Fuel Era | Vaitea Cowan | TED (video 9.14m)
Hydrogen fuel 12.45. 11 Aug 2022, AU.APP.EDU, Engineering with Rosie, CO2-Free Fe: Green Steel Tour with Boston Metal (video 12.48m)
Linde LH2 fuel 12.46. 11 Aug 2022, AU.APP.EDU, Linde, Liquid Hydrogen - The Fuel of Choice (video 2.32m)
Lavo H2 V H2 Storage 12.47. 31 Jul 2022, AU.APP.EDU, Lavo, LAVO Demonstration Site, Victoria (video 0.54m)
Hydrogen Standards 12.48. 21 Jul 2022, AU.APP.EDU, UNSW Standards Australia, Standards and Regulations Gaps Across the Hydrogen Value Chain (video 16.25m)
Hydrogen Standards 12.49. 31 Jul 2022, AU.APP.EDU, Engineering with Rosie, Green Steel: Can We Make Steel Without CO2 Emissions? (video 16.25m)
Hydrogen Standards 12.50. 26 Feb 2022, AU.APP.EDU, DW Planet A, The truth about hydrogen (video 12.07m)
Hydrogen fuel 12.51. 23 Feb 2022, EU.APP.ACFT, Airbus, A tour of the Airbus A380 hydrogen engine test aircraft (video 4.46m)
Doosan UAV Hydrogen 12.52. 30 Nov 2021, KR.APP.ACFT, Doosan, Launching the World's First Hydrogen VTOL, DJ25! (video 3.07m)
Hydrogen fuel 12.53. 09 Nov 2021, US.APP.EDU, ASME, When Will We See the Hydrogen Revolution? (video 13.07m)
Natural Hydrogen 12.54. 07 Oct 2021, AU.APP.EDU, Geoscience Australia / AACC Texas, AUSTRALIA Energy Resources Update #1 - Geoscience / Natural Hydrogen (video 45.16m)
Space Hydrogen fuel 12.55. 09 Sep 2021, US.APP.EDU, NASA / Interesting Engineering, Why rockets eject half a million gallons of water (video 4.32m)
Hydrogen fuel 12.56. 26 Aug 2021, UK.APP.EDU, The Economist, Hydrogen: fuel of the future? (video 8.04m)
Hydrogen embrittlement 12.57. 19 Aug 2020, EU.APP.EDU, Max Plank Institute, What is hydrogen embrittlement and what can be done to prevent it? (video 8.21m)
Hydrogen fuel cells technology 12.58. 22 Apr 2020, EU.APP.EDU, Scott Manley The Science Behind Fuel Cells - How They Powered Spacecraft, Cars And Sometimes Phones (video 14.42m)

AU Future Gas Strategy 13.1. 25 Jun 2024, Australian Federal Government, Future Gas Strategy, "Two of six principles include: Australia is, and will remain, a reliable trading partner for energy, including Liquefied Natural Gas and low emission gases. Gas must remain affordable for Australian users throughout the transition to net zero." Australia's Future Gas Strategy submission comparison: Ernst & Young vs. GreenPeace Australia
H2 Safety H2 13.2. 08 Jun 2024, MDPI, Artificial Intelligence-Driven Innovations in Hydrogen Safety, "Here, a comprehensive exploration of recent advancements in hydrogen safety, particularly the application of AI methodologies in evaluating potential safety scenarios, and the design of safety measures is considered. Against this backdrop, the integration of AI methodologies emerges as a transformative paradigm in augmenting H2 safety measures."
H2 Standards Australia 13.3. 13 May 2024, Standards Australia, AU Hydrogen Standards, ME-093 Hydrogen Technologies Strategic Work Plan (PDF) summarises the work of Standards Australia’s ME-093, H2 Technologies committee & highlights its future activities."
Sandia National Laboratories 13.4. 07 May 2024, Sandia National Laboratories, US Hydrogen Safety, Codes, and Standards, Sandia’s H2 safety, codes, and standards research program develops the technical data and scientific understanding necessary to offer science-based improvements to the codes & standards that define the safe use of H2. These codes and standards are critical for the broader use and deployment of H2."
CSIRO HyStandards H2 13.5. 01 Feb 2024, HyStandards has been developed by Standards Australia + CSIRO to provide industry, government & community a means of identifying relevant H2 standards through a visual representation of H2 facility scenarios:
🔴 Electrolyser hydrogen production
🔴 Gaseous hydrogen transport by road
🔴 Hydrogen transport by pipeline
🔴 Blended hydrogen transport by pipeline
🔴 Hydrogen refuelling
MDPI Safety Assessment H2 Jet Fire 13.6. 12 Jan 2023, MDPI, Safety Assessment of H2 Jet Fire Scenarios within Semi-Confined Spaces, "This study applied computational fluid dynamics simulations in conjunction with probabilistic calculation methods to determine the associated thermal risk of a H2 jet fire in a tunnel & its dependency on scenarios with different tunnel slopes, longitudinal & transverse ventilation velocities, & fire positions."
H2 Safety Policy 13.7. 10 Jul 2020, Australian Hydrogen Council, AU Hydrogen: Policy & Regulation,
"Standards cover:
Safety aspects of H2 generators;
Performance of stationary H2 generators for residential, commercial & industrial applications;
Quality of hydrogen fuel for vehicular & stationary applications;
Construction, safety & performance of systems to produce H2 by the electrolysis of H20;
Design & safety features of systems to purify H2 to meet quality standards;
Design, construction & testing of portable H2 containers;
Design, manufacture & testing of tanks for H2-powered vehicles;
Safety & testing of high pressure valves used in refuelling stations for H2 powered vehicles."
ISO Standards H2 13.8. Technical Committees ISO/TC 197 Hydrogen technologies
ISO Standards H2 13.9. Standards by ISO/TC 197 Hydrogen technologies

H2 ARENA Test Evaluation 14.1. 22 Jun 2024, ARENA-Horizon, Denham Hydrogen Demonstration Project Construction and Commissioning Report, "The development of a custom control program for the autonomous control of the plant’s sub‐systems and its integration with the power station control system, demanded significant effort and skilled resources. A control system with high level of maturity was a critical achievement for the success of commissioning and safety operation."
H2 NREL Test Evaluation 14.2. 08 May 2024, NREL HyCReD, Hydrogen Component Reliability Database (HyCReD), "HyCReD is a collaborative project between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the University of Maryland, and hydrogen stakeholders to improve safety reliability for hydrogen facilities by integrating risk reduction methodologies and component reliability data taxonomies that support hydrogen infrastructure failure rate analysis."
H2 NREL Test Evaluation 14.3. 20 Mar 2024, TOPSOE, TOPSOE REACHES NEW MILESTONE: SOEC DEMO REVEALS STRONG RESULTS, "In creating technologies that will contribute to and shape the future of the energy transition, Topsoe acknowledges it as a shared responsibility to enable transparency and share learnings whenever possible. To those within the industry, Topsoe hopes this inspires, pushes, and heightens the shared results all strive to meet."
H2 NREL Test Evaluation 14.4. 28 Jan 2022, NREL, Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technology Validation, "NREL technology validation team validates H2 fuel cell electric vehicles; H2 fueling infras; H2 system components; & fuel cell use in early market applications eg.material handling, backup power & prime-power applications. The team also analyzes current status of state-of-the-art laboratory fuel cell technologies, with a focus on performance & durability."
H2 HYSAFE Test Evaluation 14.5. 15 Jul 2021, HYSAFE,H2 COMPONENT LEAK RATE QUANTIFICATION FOR SYSTEM RISK & RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT THROUGH QRA & PHM FRAMEWORKS, "NREL deployed a test fixture the Leak Rate Quantification Apparatus to quantify mass flow rate of leaking gases from medium & high-pressure components that failed in service. Quantitative H2 leak rate data from system could be used to inform risk assessment & Regulation Codes & Standards."
H2 Stanford Test Evaluation 14.6. 01 Apr 2013, University of Stanford,Hydrogen Component Validation, "Projects in the Technology Validation sub-program are both “learning demonstrations” to help guide and manage the hydrogen and fuel cell component and materials research and development activities, and a validation of the technology under real-world operating conditions against durability and performance targets."

Australian Hydrogen Research Network 15.1. AU - Australian Hydrogen Research Network (AHRN) A community of researchers and interested stakeholders supporting the emerging hydrogen industry in Australia. We foster excellence in hydrogen-related research through an ongoing program of seminars and knowledge-sharing activities.
Australian National University 15.2. AU - Australian National University (ANU) Publications on aspects of the Hydrogen economy transition.
Australian Renewable Energy Agency 15.3. AU - Australian Renewable Energy Agency (ARENA) The Knowledge Bank is an open-source library of reports, studies, multimedia and tools that provide guidance and learnings to benefit future renewable hydrogen energy projects.
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation 15.4. AU - Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Publications from CSIRO on Hydrogen Fuel Cell research and development of renewable energy solutions. Hydrogen Knowledge Centre
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation 15.5. AU - Geoscience Australia / Monash University - Hydrogen Economic Fairways Tool (HEFT) HEFT was developed by Geoscience Australia in collaboration with Monash University & is based on an open-source economic model that maps the economic viability of H2 production opportunities across Australia.
Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology 15.6. AU - Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) Publications from the RMIT Sustainable Hydrogen Energy Laboratory (SHEL) that pioneers research and development on hydrogen energy solutions.
Swinburne Institute of Technology 15.7. AU - Swinburne Institute of Technology / Victorian Hydrogen Hub Led by Swinburne University of Technology in partnership with CSIRO and Germany’s ARENA2036 factory, the Victorian Hydrogen Hub (VH2) brings together researchers, industry partners and business to drive the implementation of the hydrogen economy.
University of NSW Hydrogen Research 15.8. AU - University of NSW Hydrogen storage and battery technology groupResearch focuses on fabrication and storage optimization of a novel porous solid-state hydrogen storage material in fuel cell integrated systems to reduce the hydrogen storage pressure to only 10MPa, six times less than current market technology.
frontiers 15.9. CH - Frontiers Frontiers is the 3rd most-cited and 6th largest research publisher and open science platform. Our research journals are community-driven and peer-reviewed by editorial boards of more than 260,000 top researchers.
MDPO 15.10. CH - MDPI Hydrogen Journal MDPI has supported academic communities since 1996. Based in Basel, Switzerland, MDPI has the mission to foster open scientific exchange in all forms, across all disciplines.
SciOpen 15.11. CN - SciOpen SciOpen is a professional open access resource for discovery of scientific and technical content published by the Tsinghua University Press, its publishing partners, providing the scholarly publishing community with innovative technology and market-leading capabilities.
Hydrogen Tech World 15.12. DE - Hydrogen Tech World Publications including an interesting mix of company profiles, in-depth technical articles, reports from major end users and projects in the hydrogen production industries.
Hydrogen Europe Research 15.13. EU - Hydrogen Europe Research Publications from the European scientific community involved in the development of a new, industrial ecosystem based on hydrogen and committed to moving towards a circular, carbon-neutral economy.
Interreg: North-West Europe H2SHIPS 15.14. EU - Interreg: North-West Europe H2SHIPS Research By concentrating on collaboration, CSHIPP strives to connect the dots between the various projects which look at the shared topic of clean shipping from different angles. The site is also a portal for sharing the H2SHIPS Project outputs.
Aalto H2 Innovation Center 15.15. FI - Aalto University H2 Innovation Center Hydrogen open source search on technical materials relating to hydrogen evolution, storage, distribution, and fuel cells.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 15.16. INT - International Journal of Hydrogen Energy A central vehicle for the exchange and dissemination of new ideas, technology developments and research results in the field of Hydrogen Energy between scientists and engineers throughout the world.
Advanced Industrial, Science and Technology, Fukushima Renewable Energy Institute, Hydrogen Energy Carrier Team 15.17. JP - Advanced Industrial, Science and Technology, Fukushima Renewable Energy Institute, Hydrogen Energy Carrier Team Developing technologies for storing and utilizing large amounts of renewable energy that will help solve several energy issues facing Japan.
Korea Institute of Energy Research 15.18. KR - Korea Institute of Energy Research Future Energy Research Division conducts researches on H2 generation, storage, transportation, and utilization to realize a future energy society, focusing on the development of fuel cell technologies represented by generation, storage, and use of H2, an eco-friendly source of energy with economic benefits obtained by coal fuels and water.
ScienceDirect 15.19. NL - ScienceDirect From foundational science to new and novel research, discover our large collection of Physical Sciences and Engineering publications, covering a range of disciplines, from the theoretical to the applied.
Journal of Green Technologies and Sustainability 15.20. NL - ScienceDirect Journal of Green Technologies and Sustainability This Journal encourages and promotes interdisciplinary research and development to important technological and theoretical developments in greentech and sustainability issues.
National University of Singapore 15.21. SG - National University of Singapore - Centre for Hydrogen Innovations Research site focus promotes cutting-edge R&D advancements in H2 production, storage, and utilization; and fosters collaborations with industries, academia, and agencies to drive H2-based solutions.
Geological Sociaety Publications - Lyell Collection 15.22. UK - Geological Society Publications - Lyell Collection Research site search "hydrogen" - the Lyell Collection represents one of the largest integrated collections of online Earth Science literature available.
UK MPA 15.23. UK - The Major Projects Association - Knowledge Centre Renewable Hydrogen Energy: Applied Scientific and Engineering References - A set of recent, curated, renewable Hydrogen energy scientific and engineering references covering: H2 production via electromechanical and electrolysis methods; H2 production via solar and protonic ceramics; proton exchange membrane fuel cells; H2 storage as liquid or compressed gas and Type IV carbon fibre reinforced storage products. Industry area references are categorized under Automotive; Aviation; Defence; Marine; Rail; and Smelting and Steel. References to significant H2 Research Centers, and H2 market analyses are also included.
IET 15.24. UK - TheIET.ORG The Institution of Engineering and Technology Wiley - Search "hydrogen + energy" => research developments -> we inspire, inform and influence the global engineering and technology community to engineer a better world.
PO 15.25. UK - Science X / PHYS.ORG Search "hydrogen + energy" => Daily science news on research developments, technological breakthroughs and the latest scientific innovations.
PO 15.26. UK - University of Birmingham The Birmingham Centre for Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Research focuses on research and development, applications and demonstrations of fuel cell and hydrogen systems and technologies.
ACS 15.27. US - American Chemical Society (ACS) pubs.acs.org ACS Publications’ commitment to publishing high-quality content continues to attract impactful research that addresses the world’s most important challenges.
IEEE 15.28. US - IEEE ieee.org IEEE is the world’s largest technical professional organization dedicated to advancing technology for the benefit of humanity.
Mendeley 15.29. US - Mendeley.com Search "hydrogen + energy" => Year/Document Type/Journal/Author/Access Type/Most relevant/Most recent/Most cited science articles on research developments, technological breakthroughs and the latest scientific innovations.
MIT H2 Projects 15.30. US - MIT HyTEC The research capabilities at HyTEC range from a wide variety of experimental and modeling areas associated with hydrogen. We have partnered with world-leading industries and organizations to advance the science and develop new technologies necessary to improve efficiency, reduce cost, and improve the safety of hydrogen production, liquefaction, storage and transportation.
nauture 15.31. US - Nature.com Search "hydrogen + evolution + reaction + HER" for wide variety of journal articles on researched developments, technological breakthroughs and latest innovations.
National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15.32. US - National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) NREL's research accelerates development, integration, and scale up of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies to enable widespread deployment across multiple energy sectors.
Naval Postgraduate School Energy Academic Group 15.33. US - Naval Postgraduate School Energy Academic Group (EAG) Energy Academic Group maintains the Naval Postgraduate School as a Navy center of excellence for energy graduate education and research. Our efforts focus on solving the Navy, Marine Corps, and Department of Defense’s most critical energy problems through graduate education and research. To that end, EAG employs a collaborative, multidisciplinary approach using the basic sciences, engineering, operations and analysis, and business methods.
Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy 15.34. US - Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Technical information about hydrogen published in technical reports, conference proceedings, journal articles, and websites is provided, across categories: General, Production, Delivery, and Storage.
Pennsylvania State University 15.54. US - Pennsylvania State University, H2E Center Researchers at Penn State are active in a variety of topics in hydrogen production, storage, and use in fuel cells and for other applications.
Proceedings of the National Academv of Sciences 15.36. US - Proceedings of the National Academv of Sciences, PNAS PNAS is one of the world's most-cited and comprehensive multidisciplinary scientific journals, publishing more than 3,500 research papers annually.
Sandia National Laboratories 15.37. US - Sandia National Laboratories, SNL Sandia National Laboratories is operated and managed by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc.
University of Michigan 15.38. US - University of Michigan - MI Hydrogen A joint venture by the Office of the Vice President for Research, Michigan Engineering and the School for Environment and Sustainability.
University of South Carolina 15.39. US - University of South Carolina College of Engineering and Computing Publications includes a number of specific areas of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells research related to fundamental knowledge, technical applications, and integrated systems.
Southwest Research Institute 15.40. US - Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) SwRI develops applied R&D solutions with hydrogen technology used in rockets, alternative combustion, fuel cells, energy storage, and industrial processing plants.
University of Maryland 15.41. US - University of Maryland (UMD) Faculty at UMD are engaged in many aspects of fuel cell R&D including:
Microbial fuel cells - a bio-electrochemical system that uses bacteria as the catalyst to oxidize organic and inorganic matter, and consequently, generate electric current. Applications include power generation systems, bio-recovery, & waste-water treatment.
Polymer electrolyte membrane ​​​​​​Fuel Cells - deliver high power density and offer the advantages of low weight and volume compared with other fuel cells. PEM fuel cells use a solid polymer as an electrolyte and porous carbon electrodes containing a platinum or platinum alloy catalyst.
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells - use a hard, non-porous ceramic compound as the electrolyte. SOFCs operate at very high temperatures which removes the need for precious-metal catalyst, thereby reducing cost.
University of Texas 15.42. US - University of Texas (UT) Feautured publications and White Papers on Blue Hydrogen, Green H2 economy, H2 infrastructure, and achieving NET ZERO by 2050.

16.1 AFRICA (4)
KE H2 Strategy 16.1.1. KE, GREEN HYDROGEN STRATEGY ROADMAP FOR KENYA, "The analysis showed that Kenya has sufficient renewable energy resources that are available in the country for large scale production of green hydrogen without harming the availability and supply to electricity consumers. This comprehensive approach underscores the strategy’s commitment to nurturing a shared vision, elevating green hydrogen to a pivotal cross-cutting factor in Kenya’s development agenda. By acting as a catalyst for sustainable socio-economic advancement, the strategy harmonizes with the nation’s steadfast pursuit of sustainable growth."
MT H2 Strategy Offer 16.1.2. MT, GREEN HYDROGEN MOROCCAN OFFER, "Thanks to the enlightened vision of His Majesty the King, may God assist Him, Morocco is playing an important part in the global energy transition and increasing its position as an energy hub. With its significant solar and wind energy potential, the Kingdom is one of the countries with the largest potential for green hydrogen generation, capable of meeting more than 4% of global demand by 2030. This is a significant potential for the Kingdom, which sees it as a way to decarbonize its economy, generate wealth, and create jobs."
NA H2 Strategy Offer 16.1.3. NA, Namibia. Green Hydrogen and Derivatives Strategy, "Green hydrogen plays a crucial role in the global decarbonization effort because of its versatility and unique ability to connect power, gas, chemicals and fuel markets, especially in hard-to- abate sectors. Under a net-zero by 2050 scenario, global demand for hydrogen and its derivatives is expected to soar from an estimated 140 mtpa of hydrogen equivalent in 2030 to 660 mtpa in 2050."
ZA H2 Strategy Offer 16.1.4. ZA, GREEN HYDROGEN COMMERCIALISATION STRATEGY FOR SOUTH AFRICA EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 30 NOVEMBER 2022, "The rapidly developing global Green Hydrogen (GH) market is a significant opportunity for South Africa to position itself as a global competitor in future green energy markets. Developing a vibrant GH domestic demand landscape and manufacturing capability in South Africa will be critical to decarbonise our economy and to mitigate the risk of declining fossil fuels usage linked to industrial activity. Ultimately, a thriving GH sector in South Africa will contribute to the country’s sustainable competitiveness as the world transitions to Net Zero."
16.2 ASIA (6)
CN H2 Strategy 16.2.1. CN, CHINA RELEASED THE FIRST MEDIUM- AND LONG-TERM HYDROGEN ROADMAP, "On 23 March 2022, the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) published the “Medium and Long-term Plan for Hydrogen Energy Industry Development (2021-2035)”. This is the first time China’s central government issues a comprehensive strategy for hydrogen development. The document sets goals for the time until 2035."
IN H2 Strategy 16.2.2. IN, National Green Hydrogen Mission, "To make India the Global Hub for production, usage and export of Green Hydrogen and its derivatives. This will contribute to India’s aim to become Aatmanirbhar through clean energy and serve as an inspiration for the global Clean Energy Transition. The Mission will lead to significant decarbonisation of the economy, reduced dependence on fossil fuel imports, and enable India to assume technology and market leadership in Green Hydrogen"
JP Basic H2 Strategy 16.2.3. JP, Overview of Basic Hydrogen Strategy, "Through green transformation (GX), Japan aims to simultaneously realize stable energy supply, economic growth, enhanced international industrial competitiveness, and decarbonization. In order to draw out more than 150 trillion yen in GX-related investment from the public and private sectors over the next 10 years, the government has indicated a policy of providing upfront investment support on the scale of 20 trillion yen."
KR KIER H2 Strategy 16.2.4. KR, Republic of Korea - KIER Energy Policy Research Team, "In order to develop a vision of energy technology for transition to a carbon-neutral country, KIER is in charge of establishing R&D strategies such as R&D business & operation plans and mid- to long-term R&D strategies plan. Also, based on energy technology policy research, we are striving to prepare technological alternatives that can proactively respond to national energy and climate change issues. Moreover, we are supporting establishment of national energy technology R&D strategies as National Technology Strategy Center of Ministry of Science and ICT."
MY H2 Strategy 16.2.5. MY, HYDROGEN ECONOMY – POWERING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE, "The Malaysian Investment Development Authority (MIDA) successfully organised an inaugural seminar with the theme ‘Hydrogen Economy – Building a Sustainable Ecosystem in Shaping the Future of Energy, Materials & Infrastructure’ at MIDA Sentral, Kuala Lumpur on 21 March 2023. This seminar aimed to explore the significant potential of hydrogen technology and its ability to transform Malaysia’s energy, materials, and infrastructure sectors."
SG H2 Strategy 16.2.6. SG, Singapore’s National Hydrogen Strategy, "For Singapore, hydrogen will complement and diversify our power mix alongside solar, imported electricity, and other potential low-carbon energy sources. Depending on technological developments and the development of other energy sources, hydrogen could supply up to half of our power needs by 2050 and will play an important role in decarbonising our industry."
16.3 EUROPE (23)
AT H2 Strategy 16.3.1. AT, Hydrogen Strategy for Austria, "Compatibility with the goal of achieving climate neutrality is only ensured through the use of climate-neutral hydrogen. In the intermediate term, it will remain a scarce and high-quality energy carrier and must therefore be used efficiently through focused deployment."
BE H2 Strategy 16.3.2. BE, Belgian federal Hydrogen Strategy, "On October 29, 2021, the federal government adopted its first hydrogen strategy on the proposal of Energy Minister Tinne Van der Straeten. This document announced for the first time Belgium's ambitions for renewable molecules and the role it wants to play as an import and transit hub in Europe. Since then, many measures have been initiated. On October 12, 2022, the federal government validated an update of this strategy to reflect the state of progress of the implementation of the latter. Additional measures are announced taking into account recent developments in the sector."
CZ H2 Strategy 16.3.3. CZ, The Czech Republic's Hydrogen Strategy, "The Czech Republic’s Hydrogen Strategy is being developed in the context of the Hydrogen Strategy for a climate neutral Europe, which reflects the European Green Deal objective of climate neutrality by 2050. The objective of the Strategy is thus to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in such a way that the economy shifts smoothly to low-carbon technologies."
DE H2 Strategy 16.3.4. DE, National Hydrogen Strategy Update, "The use of hydrogen and its derivatives will play a key role in the decarbonisation process, in particular for the transformation process in the energy sector, the transport sector and industry that is due to be completed by 2030."
DK H2 Strategy 16.3.5. DK, Danish strategy for Power-to-X (PtX), "Together with a broad majority in the Folketing, the Government has also funded Danish value chain projects for hydrogen (IPCEI) with DKK 850 million, allocated roughly DKK 400 million to the development of PtX via the EUDP and Danish Energy Agency’s energy storage funding pool and finally, allocated DKK 500 million from REACT-EU to act on the recommendations from the regional growth teams to establish eight local commercial beacons in Denmark."
EE H2 Strategy 16.3.6. EE, Estonian Hydrogen Roadmap, "Based on the long-term development strategy ‘Estonia 2035’ and the European Green Deal, Estonia has set itself ambitious climate, environmental and energy objectives. To achieve these objectives, it is necessary to switch from fossil fuels to cleaner energy sources, including hydrogen."
ES H2 Strategy 16.3.7. ES, SPAIN RENEWABLE HYDROGEN ROADMAP, "The Spanish government has developed the county’s “Hydrogen Roadmap: A Commitment to Renewable Hydrogen” plan to contribute to achieving climate neutrality and a 100% renewable electricity system with objectives for 2030 and a vision for 2050 to ensure that renewable hydrogen contributes to the country’s climate neutrality.by 2050."
EU H2 Strategy 16.3.8. EU, Key actions of the EU Stratey, "The hydrogen strategy for a climate-neutral Europe was adopted in July 2020. By the first quarter 2022, all of its 20 action points were implemented and delivered. The 20 key actions in the EU Hydrogen Strategy (COM/2020/301) are listed below with follow-up information and links."
FI H2 Strategy 16.3.9. FI, Net-Zero Government Initiative (NZGI) Finland, "Finland will double its production of clean electricity. The share of renewable energy in energy production will be increased, and action will be taken towards phasing out the use of fossil fuels in heat and electricity production by the 2030s at the latest."
FR H2 Strategy 16.3.10. FR, NATIONAL HYDROGEN STRATEGY, "Harnessing the hydrogen sector’s full potential in pursuit of France’s decarbonization and reindustrialization."
HU H2 Strategy 16.3.11. HU, HUNGARY’S NATIONAL HYDROGEN STRATEGY, "On the long term, the Strategy focuses on “green” hydrogen, but in addition to hydrogen based on electricity generated using renewable resources, primarily solar energy, Hungary does not ignore opportunities for hydrogen production based on carbon-free energy accessed either through a nuclear basis or from the network. Additionally, in the short and medium term, a rapid reduction in emissions and the establishment of a viable hydrogen market will also require low-carbon hydrogen."
IE H2 Strategy 16.3.12. IE, National Hydrogen Strategy, "The National Hydrogen Strategy sets out the strategic vision on the role that hydrogen will play in Ireland’s energy system, looking to its long-term role as a key component of a zero-carbon economy, and the short-term actions that need to be delivered over the coming years to enable the development of the hydrogen sector in Ireland."
IS H2 Strategy 16.3.13. IS, Hydrogen and E-fuels Roadmap for Iceland, "Green hydrogen and related chemicals derived from hydrogen (e.g., e-ammonia, e-meth- anol, e-diesel, and e-kerosene) will significantly decarbonise the world economy as feedstock and fuel. It will play a key role in sectors heavily relying on fossil fuels, such as heavy-duty road transport, maritime and aviation sectors, and industries that are hard to decarbonise such as the fertiliser, steel, and refinery industries. In Iceland, hydrogen and e-fuels are the keys to decarbonising the transportation and maritime sectors."
LT H2 Strategy 16.3.14. LT, LITHUANIAN NATIONAL ENERGY INDEPENDENCE STRATEGY – A ROADMAP FOR THE FUTURE, "Domestically produced biomethane and hydrogen will play a strong role in public and heavy duty transport decarbonization so infrastructure is being prepared in advance. It is planned to increase the share of renewable gases in the transport sector by 5% until 2030."
LU H2 Strategy 16.3.15. LU, Stratégie hydrogène du Luxembourg, "In Luxembourg, an annual consumption of fossil hydrogen of around 450 tonnes (H2) has been identified in industry. The substitution of presently used fossil H2 by renewable H2 should constitute an intermediate objective, allowing for GHG emissions savings of up to >5,000 tonnes (CO2) per year. Then, renewable hydrogen will contribute to the gradual decarbonisation of other hard-to-abate processes. Against the background of the traget climate neutrality by 2050, renewable hy"
LV H2 Strategy 16.3.16. LV, National Hydrogen Strategy, "Latvia, as already one of the greenest countries in Europe, must utilize its potential in renewable energy, hydrogen technologies, and bioeconomy, becoming both a net exporter of electricity and a leader in green technology development,” emphasizes Minister of Economics Viktors Valainis."
NL H2 Strategy 16.3.17. NL, Excelling in Hydrogen Dutch technology for a climate-neutral world, "Next to its use as feedstock or fuel, hydrogen can, as an energy carrier, solve systemic issues by enabling further integration of renewable energy in our energy system. Although challenges lie ahead, fostering the development of hydrogen is key to making the energy transition a success."
NO H2 Strategy 16.3.18. NO, The Norwegian Government’s hydrogen strategy, "This hydrogen strategy is a contribution to the process of developing new low emission technologies and solutions. An increased focus on hydrogen in Norway is in line with the goal of having internationally competitive businesses which develop the technology and solutions addressing tomorrow’s challenges. We will grasp the opportunities presented by the green transition."
PT H2 Strategy 16.3.20. PT, National Strategy for Hydrogen, "Council of Ministers Resolution no. 63/2020 - Portugal has established the National Hydrogen Strategy according with the attachment of the Council of Ministers' Resolution 63/2020, published on 14/08/2020, which is an integral part of it."
SE H2 Strategy 16.3.21. SE, Hydrogen strategy, "Hydrogen will play an important role for Swedish industry when implementing the 22 roadmaps for fossil-free competitiveness. Fossil Free Sweden has developed a strategy to use hydrogen to achieve the climate goals but also with a focus on new industrial initiatives to create innovations, jobs and export products."
Ukraine H2 Strategy 16.3.22. UA, UA Decarbonisation and the Green Deal: Ministry of Energy presents the draft Hydrogen Strategy, "The Ukraine Ministry of Energy presented the draft Hydrogen Strategy until 2050 during a working group meeting. The document contains up-to-date data on the development of hydrogen energy in the world, hydrogen classification and analysis of international legislation."
UK H2 Strategy 16.3.23. UK, UK hydrogen strategy, "This strategy sets out the approach to developing a thriving low carbon hydrogen sector in the UK to meet our increased ambition for 10GW of low carbon hydrogen production capacity by 2030. The page includes hydrogen strategy updates to the market."
CA H2 Strategy 16.4.1. CA, The Hydrogen Strategy, "The Hydrogen Strategy was released in December 2020, and positions Canada as a world-leading producer, user and exporter of low-carbon hydrogen and associated technologies. Natural Resources Canada engaged with stakeholder groups, provincial and territorial governments, and Indigenous partners to develop a strategy that will help set us on the path to meet our climate change goals of becoming net-zero by 2050."
US H2 Strategy 16.4.2. US, U.S. National Clean Hydrogen Strategy and Roadmap, "The U.S. National Clean Hydrogen Strategy and Roadmap explores opportunities for clean hydrogen to contribute to national decarbonization goals across multiple sectors of the economy. It provides a snapshot of hydrogen production, transport, storage, and use in the United States today."
16.5 OCEANIA (2)
AU H2 Strategy 16.5.1. AU, Australia’s National Hydrogen Strategy, "Australia’s National Hydrogen Strategy sets a vision for a clean, innovative, safe and competitive hydrogen industry that benefits all Australians. It aims to position our industry as a major global player by 2030."
NZ H2 Strategy 16.5.2. NZ, New Zealand’s hydrogen roadmap, "Development of a Hydrogen Roadmap was included as an action in the first Emissions Reduction Plan in 2022. The roadmap will outline the Government’s position on the future role of hydrogen in New Zealand and set out the pathway for establishing a hydrogen industry in Aotearoa New Zealand that will support the transition to net zero 2050."
BR H2 Strategy 16.6.1. BR, 2031 TEN-YEAR ENERGY EXPANSION PLAN, "Hydrogen has the potential to initiate a paradigm shift in the energy sector, bringing substantial opportunities to Latin America. The region can become a world leader mainly in low carbon hydrogen, considering the abundant and competitive renewable energy resources, as well as contributing to strongly decarbonize the region's industries and transportion sector."
CL H2 Strategy 16.6.2. CL, NATIONAL GREEN HYDROGEN STRATEGY Chile, a clean energy provider for a carbon neutral planet, "Like hydrogen, Chile is small by nature and, accordingly, contributes just 0.3% to global greenhouse gas emissions. However, we too have an outsized role to play in turning the tide on rising emissions and pursuing a low carbon path to growth and development. What we lack in size, we more than make up for in potential. In the desert in the North, with the highest solar irradiance on the planet, and in the Patagonia in the South, with strong and consistent winds, we have the renewable energy potential to install 70 times the electricity generation capacity we have today. This abundant renewable energy will enable us to become the cheapest producer of green hydrogen on Earth. Our National Green Hydrogen Strategy is aimed at turning this promise into reality."
CO H2 Strategy 16.6.3. CO, Colombia's Hydrogen Roadmap, "The purpose of the Hydrogen Roadmap is to contribute towards the development and implementation of low-emission carbon hydrogen in Colombia, thus reinforcing the Government's commitment to the reduction of emissions according to the objectives set forth in the 2015 Paris Agreement. In order to develop this Roadmap, the Colombian Government has the support of the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) through its Energy Division and its Climate Change and Sustainability Division."
PY H2 Strategy Roadmap 16.6.4. PY, Towards the Green Hydrogen Roadmap in Paraguay, "This project, in the form of guidelines and a proposal for a demonstration project, aims to be a catalyst for the development of the green hydrogen (H2) economy in Paraguay aimed at meeting energy needs and contributing to producti- ve development. In addition, it is a comple- ment to national efforts to develop sustai- nable urban mobility as an alternative for the mitigation of the environmental and public health impact of mobility and trans- portation activities, which are responsible for poor air quality, noise pollution and increased temperatures in urban centers."
UY H2 Strategy 16.6.5. UY, Green Hydrogen Roadmap in Uruqguay, "This roadmap is a first step to start setting a course in dialogue with many other stakeholders and in parrallel to drive concrete actions through the development of a specific program called H2U."

Atomic Mass (mole): Hydrogen 1.00784 u; Carbon 12.011 u; Oxygen 15.999 u
Molar Mass: Hydrogen 2.01568 g/mole; Carbon 12.011 g/mole; Oxygen 31.998 g/mole

1000g H2(g) + 7937g O2(g) ↔ 8937g H2O(l) + 33.33kWh Energy (LHV)
3kg H2(g) + 24kg O2(g) ↔ 27kg H2O(l) + 100kWh Energy (LHV)
Light duty FCEV GH2 tank: 4-6kg H2(g)
Light duty FCEV: 1kg H2(g) / 100km
Basic filling flow rate: 1-2kg H2(g) / min
Fast filling flow rate: 14-21kg H2(g) / min
Cryogenic volumetric mass density: 70kg H2(l) / m3

HYDROGEN SHOT USA: 1kg H2 / 1USD by 2031

Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER): 2H2O(l) ↔ 2H2(g) + O2(g) E0 = -1.229V
Gravimetric Energy Density HHV
Volumetric HHV

🔴 Carbon Price Tracker: Cost per 1000kg of CO2 produced (€)

Acknowledgment of Country

Red Ccross Australia
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Harvard Reference Citation:
otso.com.au. (2024). Hydrogen Energy Research. [online] Available at: https://otso.com.au/ [Accessed 2024-07-18].