🔴Research // UNSW
🌑Skills & Qualifications
🌑 Work Experience
🔴2020-present OTSO
2013-2020 Germany
1997-2013 Finland
1990-1997 ADF.Navy
1978-1990 ADF.Army

Royal Military College of Australia

Research 2022

Defence Force Service Medal Australian Defence Medal


2H2O(l) ↔ 2H2(g) + O2(g)E0 = -1.229V
Nature Communications, 15 March 2022: "A high-performance capillary-fed electrolysis cell promises more cost-competitive renewable hydrogen"
Germany based site offering free Hydrogen Society webinars and technical resources: "At Mission Hydrogen we aim to support, promote and enable the global hydrogen society" Mission Hydrogen
"With the recent focus on human missions to the moon and eventually Mars, hydrogen will continue to be innovatively stored, measured, processed and employed." NASA Hydrogen & Fuel Cells
Hydrogen market significant companies:
01. Panasonic Corporation (Japan) -
02. FuelCell Energy, Inc. (U.S.) -
03. Plug Power Inc. (U.S.) -
04. Intelligent Energy Holdings plc (UK) -
05. Hyster-Yale Group (U.S.) / Nuvera Fuel Cells -
06. Ballard Power Systems. (Canada) -
07. Doosan Fuel Cell (U.S.) -
08. Nedstack fuel cell technology BV. (Netherlands) -
09. Cummins Incorporated / Hydrogenics Corporation (Canada) -
10. Pearl Hydrogen (China) -
11. Horizon Fuel Cell Technologies (Singapore) -
12. JOUAV Hydrogen Cell UAS (China) -
13. Air Liquide (France) -
14. Messer Group (U.S.) -
"NASDAQ: The $11 Trillion Hydrogen Revolution Is Coming in 2022"
"The Canberra Times, 2 August 2022: Green hydrogen tech (Hysata) wins global backers"
2H2O(l) ↔ 2H2(g) + O2(g)E0 = -1.229V
IRENA 1. 01 May 2022, IRENA: Innovation trends in Electrolysers for Hydrogen Production. - report Download "In a collaborative effort between the European Patent Office (EPO) and the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), this patent insight report examines the global evolution of patent filings published between 2005 and 2020 in the domain of electrolysers used to produce hydrogen."
Hysata CFE 2. 16 March 2022, University of Wollongong and HYSATA "...overall electrolyser system has been designed for ease of manufacturing, scaling and installation, delivering 95 percent overall system efficiency, compared to 75 percent or less for existing electrolyser technologies. For hydrogen producers, this will significantly reduce both the capital and operational costs to produce green hydrogen."
Capillary-Fed Electrolysis 3. 15 March 2022, Nature "A high-performance capillary-fed electrolysis cell promises more cost-competitive renewable hydrogen." "...a unique concept of water electrolysis is introduced, wherein water is supplied to hydrogen- and oxygen-evolving electrodes via capillary-induced transport along a porous inter-electrode separator, leading to inherently bubble-free operation at the electrodes. An alkaline capillary-fed electrolysis cell of this type demonstrates water electrolysis performance exceeding commercial electrolysis cells, with a cell voltage at 0.5A cm−2 and 85 degC of only 1.51V, equating to 98% energy efficiency, with an energy consumption of 40.4 kWh/kg hydrogen (vs. ~47.5 kWh/kg in commercial electrolysis cells). High energy efficiency, combined with the promise of a simplified balance-of-plant, brings cost-competitive renewable hydrogen closer to reality."
Toyota Australia 30kW 4. 15 March 2022, Energys Australia "Energys 30 kW Fuel Cell Power Generator Online at Toyota Australia Hydrogen Centre. The turn-key hydrogen Fuel Cell Genset was designed and manufactured by Energys and generates up to 30 KW of on demand zero emissions 3 phase AC power (400VAC) for use on site. Alongside the existing solar and (when necessary) grid power, the electricity produced is able to support the power demand of the centre."
Floating Offshore Wind 5. 01 March 2022, Science Direct "Dedicated large-scale floating offshore wind to hydrogen: Assessing design variables in proposed typologies." "Highlights: 1. Offshore hydrogen pipelines are economical for large and distant farms. 2. Decentralised offshore typology is flexible in operation and facilitates expansion. 3. Commercial electrolysers need no pre-requisite modifications on a floating turbine. 4. Centralised offshore typology is preferable for large deep-water farms. This paper considers dedicated large-scale floating offshore wind farms for hydrogen production with three coupling typologies; (i) centralised onshore electrolysis, (ii) decentralised offshore electrolysis, and (iii) centralised offshore electrolysis. The typology design is based on variables including for: electrolyser technology; floating wind platform; and energy transmission vector (electrical power or offshore hydrogen pipelines)."
Nature Catalysis PEM 6. 14 February 2022, Nature Catalysis Enhancing the stability of cobalt spinel oxide towards sustainable oxygen evolution in acid. This report shows that incorporating Mn into the spinel lattice of Co3O4 can extend the catalyst lifetime in acid by two orders of magnitude while maintaining the activity."
Plug Power Electolyzer 7. 2022, Plug Power Best-in-Class Electrolyzer Products: Assessing design variables in proposed typologies. "Dependable: Plug’s electrolyzer products utilize PEM stack technology with nearly 50 years of operational experience in applications demanding extremely high reliability, including mission critical life-support in nuclear submarines and NASA spacecraft.
Modular: Plug offers plug-and-play electrolyzer products, as well as custom-engineered, built-to-order integrated solutions to meet any type of demand. Plug’s output instantaneously adjusts based on electrical input, creating a perfect pairing with intermittent renewable resources."
Elogen H2 Electolyzer 8. 2022, Elogen H2 Turnkey Containerised Electrolysers: "Elogen develops, manufactures and sells turnkey, fully integrated electrolysers, containerised or on a chassis, for producing green hydrogen. Characteristics of Elogen’s turnkey containerised electrolysers: Up to 10 MW; Turnkey solutions; Modular; Easy to install and move. Elogen is a French leader in proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis, specialised in the design and assembly of electrolysers for producing green hydrogen."
Green H2 Systems & Electolyzers 9. 2022, Green Hydrogen Systems & Electolyzers: "Green Hydrogen Systems develops: The X-Series is based on the existing well-proven technology, optimised for use in the growing market for large-scale applications in, for example, industry, energy and heavy-duty transport sectors. Its unique multi-stack concept allows the electrolyser to reach higher voltages crucial to utilise mass-produced, low-cost and high-efficiency power electronics from wind and solar markets."
2H2O(l) ↔ 2H2(g) + O2(g)E0 = -1.229V
Sunfire Thermochemical Electrolysis 1. 05 July 2022, "Sunfire’s innovative SOEC (solid oxide electrolysis cell) technology and operates at temperatures of 850°C. By using industrial off-heat, the electrolyzer processes water steam to hydrogen at highest conversion efficiencies. As the steam reduces electricity demand, Sunfire’s SOEC technology is the most efficient electrolysis solution on the market."
Bismuth oxyiodide BiOI 2. 15 April 2022, Science Direct "2D/3D S-scheme heterojunction of carbon nitride/iodine-deficient bismuth oxyiodide for photocatalytic hydrogen production and bisphenol A degradation
Bismuth oxyiodide BiOI is a fascinating photoactive material that has energy levels at the right positions for water splitting. The 2D/3D g-C3N4/BiO1.2I0.6 photocatalyst was constructed for the first time and this photocatalyst showed excellent activity for hydrogen production and BPA degradation. The high activity was caused by rapid electron transfer and S-scheme system and the S-scheme mechanism was confirmed by IEF and band offsets."
SunHydrogen process 3. 01 February 2022, SunHydrogen "Splitting water into H2 and O2 The Solution: Photoelectrosynthetically Active Heterostructures (PAH) Each PAH nanoparticle is a microscopic machine, composed of multiple layers enabling the solar electrolysis reaction to take place. It’s a process similar to what happens inside a plant cell during photosynthesis."
Solar REDOX Hydrogen process 4. 13 July 2021, MDPI "Fresh water is provided to the plant through seawater desalination at the seaside and subsequent pipeline transport to the plant location. The water is then split into hydrogen and oxygen via a two-step solar thermochemical redox cycle at temperatures of 1000–1900 K driven by concentrated solar radiation." Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production in the USA - MDPI
Sequential cocatalyst decoration on BaTaO2N 5. 12 February 2021, Nature "Sequential cocatalyst decoration on BaTaO2N towards highly-active Z-scheme water splitting" This article demonstrates "...efficient utilization of photoexcited electrons in a single-crystalline particulate BaTaO2N photocatalyst prepared with the assistance of RbCl flux for H2 evolution reactions via sequential decoration of Pt cocatalyst by impregnation-reduction followed by site-selective photodeposition."
Solar REDOX Hydrogen process 6. 31 October 2016, Nature "Solar water splitting by photovoltaic-electrolysis with a solar-to-hydrogen efficiency over 30%" Hydrogen production via electrochemical water splitting is a promising approach for storing solar energy.
2H2O(l) ↔ 2H2(g) + O2(g)E0 = -1.229V
AMRC 1. 01 June 2022, AMRC: Composite hydrogen tank aims to decarbonise road transportation: "Conventional metallic hydrogen storage tanks are heavy and would reduce the vehicle’s payload. What is needed for transport applications is safe, affordable and lightweight hydrogen storage tanks. However, despite the high projected future demand for such tanks, there is virtually no UK manufacturing capability for composite pressure vessels. This project seeks to address this issue through the development of globally competitive methods of manufacture for lightweight, Type 4 hydrogen storage tanks that could eventually be deployed into UK industry.”
Plastic Omnium 2. 2022, Plastic Omnium "High Pressure Type IV Hydrogen Storage: Designing and producing high-pressure type IV hydrogen vessels, composed of a liner encased in a carbon-fiber shell. Our expertise in filament winding enabled us to obtain European and international certifications in 2019."
Hexagon Purus 3. 2022, Hexagon Purus "Over the last couple of decades Hexagon Purus has been adapting its leading and proven Type 4 composite pressure cylinder technology for a wide range of mobility and storage applications in the hydrogen industry. Our hydrogen cylinders developed to date, are available in the pressure levels 250, 300, 500, 700 and 950 bar."üre_HighPressureType4.pdf
MT  Aerospace 4. 2022, MT Aerospace "have provided proof that a high-performance pressure tank made of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) can withstand cryogenic stress (H2 or O2). In the future, the use of CFRP high-performance tanks should not only enable safe rocket launches, it can also exploit the advantage of significantly lower mass compared to metallic tanks."
NPROXX 5. 2022, NPROXX "create high strength, lightweight pressure vessels using filament wet winding, with braiding and resin transfer moulding used for more complex geometries. Our CFRP Type 4 pressure vessels can be used for up to 30 years without needing to be replaced, which is twice the expected life span of Type 1 and Type 2 vessels."
Linde IC Fuelbox 6. 2022, Linde Engineering IC Fuelbox is an all-in-one transportable hydrogen refueling station that integrates Linde’s proprietary IC 90/30 or IC 50/30 Ionic Compressors with an intermediate H2 storage tank and dispenser. With a small footprint of just 12 m², this ready-to-run unit can be deployed at just about any location - in record time with almost no installation effort."
Toyota  H2  Storage 7. 2022, Toyota H2 Storage "Pioneer in building 70 MPa mass-produced tanksAchieves world top-level 70 MPa class hydrogen mounted mass with effectiveness *1 6.0 wt% *1:Hydrogen mounted mass effectiveness (weight%) = hydrogen mounted amount (kg)/tank mass (kg) × 100 Vehicle-mounted 70 MPa tanks have been produced since 2008, and more than 20,000 were produced for the first-generation Mirai."
Steelhead  H2  Storage 8. 2022, Steelhead H2 Storage "Patented “Steelhead expanded port openings with hydrogen-ready, stainless steel or aluminum threaded connections large enough to house an in-tank valve and regulator. Custom, high-performance carbon fiber composite for least weight and long life capabilities. Size availability range from 6L to 270L"
IJHE  H2  Storage 9. 2021, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy Volume 46, Issue 29, 26 April 2021 "Large-scale compressed hydrogen storage as part of renewable electricity storage systems. This paper focuses on the large-scale compressed hydrogen storage options with respect to three categories: storage vessels, geological storage, and other underground storage alternatives."!
2H2O(l) ↔ 2H2(g) + O2(g)E0 = -1.229V
PEM 1. 03 June 2022, Advanced Energy & Sustainability Research Long-Term Operation of Nb-Coated Stainless Steel Bipolar Plates for Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolyzers Herein, a PEM stack with coated stainless steel (ss) BPPs (Nb/Ti/ss-BPP and Nb/ss-BPP) is reported, which operates for about 14 000 h at 1.63 ± 0.12 A cm−2 and 65 °C. The average degradation rate is as low as 1.2% or 5.5 μV h−1. Scanning electrode microcopy reveals no signs of corrosion of the ss beneath the coatings.
PEM 2. 25 April 2022, Nature Catalysis High loading of single atomic iron sites in Fe–NC oxygen reduction catalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cells Here we show that by preforming a carbon–nitrogen matrix using a sacrificial metal (Zn) in the initial synthesis step and then exchanging iron into this preformed matrix we achieve 7 wt% iron coordinated solely as single-atom Fe–N4 sites, as identified by 57Fe cryogenic Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The catalyst delivers an excellent proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance with current densities of 41.3 mA cm−2 at 0.90 ViR-free using H2–O2 and 145 mA cm−2 at 0.80 V (199 mA cm−2 at 0.80 ViR-free) using H2–air.
PEM 3. 21 March 2022, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science A completely precious metal–free alkaline fuel cell with enhanced performance using a carbon-coated nickel anode "In this research, a groundbreaking advance in completely nonprecious hydrogen fuel cell technologies achieving a record power density of 200 mW/cm2 with Ni@CNx anode and Co−Mn cathode. The 2-nm CNx coating weakens the O-binding energy, which effectively mitigates the undesirable surface oxidation during hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) polarization, leading to a stable fuel cell operation for Ni@CNx over 100 h at 200 mA/cm2, superior to a Ni nanoparticle counterpart. Ni@CNx exhibited a dramatically enhanced tolerance to CO relative to Pt/C, enabling the use of hydrogen gas with trace amounts of CO, critical for practical applications. The complete removal of precious metals in fuel cells lowers the catalyst cost to virtually negligible levels and marks a milestone for practical alkaline fuel cells."
PEM 4. 04 February 2022, Los Alamos National Laboratory 0203 POLYMER FUEL CELLS (80-160C range) In this research: "A new high-temperature polymer fuel cell that operates at 80-160 degrees Celsius, with a higher-rated power density than state-of-the-art fuel cells, solves the longstanding problem of overheating. The Los Alamos team designed a polymer electrolyte composed of a phosphonated polymer and a perfluorosulfonic acid. In this composite electrolyte structure, the team found that a proton from the perfluorosulfonic acid transfers to the phosphonated polymer and dramatically enhances proton conductivity."
PEM 5. 02 February 2022, Science Advances, Nonprecious transition metal nitrides as efficient oxygen reduction electrocatalysts for alkaline fuel cells
"This is a report on a group of nonprecious Transition metal nitrides as potential oxygen reduction reaction catalysts in alkaline medium."
PEM 6. 11 October 2021, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 46, Issue 70, pp 34867-34873 Effect of the CeO2 nanoparticles in microporous layers on the durability of proton exchange membrane fuel cells.
PEM 7. 2018-2021, Advanced Polyimide Materials in Proton Exchange Membranes
This is a report on Bridging a bi-directional connection between electricity and fuels in hybrid multienergy systems.
2H2O(l) ↔ 2H2(g) + O2(g)E0 = -1.229V
Volvo CE 1. Volvo CE Articulated Hauler Volvo Construction Equipment (Volvo CE) continues acting on its commitment to drive change towards a net-zero future. Following the completion of a multi-stakeholder research project aimed at breaking new ground in hydrogen technology,the company has started testing of the world’s first fuel cell articulated hauler prototype, the Volvo HX04. The results of the project will provide important insights into the possibilities provided by hydrogen and fuel cells as Volvo CE continues research for its future product development programs.
HYVIA Renault 2. HYVIA (Renault) Hydrogen Ecosystem Light commercial vehicles from Renault with fuel cells, recharging stations, supply of green hydrogen, maintenance and fleet management: HYVIA’s unique offering integrates the entire hydrogen mobility ecosystem to provide complete and integrated solutions.
Ballard 3. Fuel Cell Electric Trucks Ballard heavy duty motive modules are powering a fleet of fuel cell delivery trucks in China, Kenworth Truck Company’s fuel cell hybrid drayage truck, Anglo American ultra heavy duty mining truck and the ATMA project in Alberta, Canada.
BMW iX5 4. BMWs iX5 fuel cell solution Despite harsh below-zero temperatures and the most challenging conditions such as ice and snow, all drive components of the BMW iX5 Hydrogen – from the fuel cell system to the hydrogen tanks and the power buffer battery to the central vehicle control unit – impressively underlined their reliability and suitability for everyday use.
Toyota Mirai 5. Toyota Mirai fuel cell solution Our fuel cell system is in fact a development of our hybrid electric technology, with a hydrogen fuel cell stack taking the place of a petrol engine. The fuel cell produces electricity that powers the motor that drives the car, all with no emissions other than water.
Hyundai NEXO 6. Hyundai NEXO With just 5 minutes filling time and a driving range of 666 kilometres, the Hyundai NEXO proves the practicality of an eco-friendly powertrain.
Hyundai Motor Group 7. Hyundai Motor Group Hyundai Motor Group succeeded in mass-producing the world’s first hydrogen fuel-cell electric vehicle (FCEV) back in 2013. Since then, Hyundai Motor Group’s hydrogen project has been a paradigm shifter by introducing hydrogen-related inventions, such as next-generation FCEVs, hydrogen-powered houses, commercial FCEVs, and even future mobility solutions.
Toyota Forklifts 8. Toyota Fuel Cell Trucks The fuel cell system on a forklift consists of the fuel cell stack, the 350-bar hydrogen tank, a small lithium-ion battery to temporarily store surplus energy, and a fan. All this is contained in a cast frame the size of a classic lead-acid battery and can be installed relatively easily in a conventional electric forklift. Inside the fuel cell stack, the hydrogen is mixed with air, where it reacts with the oxygen in the air to produce water. During this chemical reaction, electrical energy is released; this energy is collected and used to drive the electric motors that power the forklift’s propulsion, lift and tilt systems.
2H2O(l) ↔ 2H2(g) + O2(g)E0 = -1.229V
Airbus 1. Airbus fully expects green hydrogen to power its future zero-emission aircraft when it reaches the market by 2035. The challenge today is to support long-term scale-up to ensure there is enough green hydrogen available to fuel the aviation industry’s needs. Green hydrogen is an energy pathway that forms a critical part of Airbus’ strategy to lead the decarbonisation of the aviation industry. This means architecting the future green hydrogen ecosystem for aviation will need to start now in preparation of an entry-into-service of hydrogen aircraft by 2035. If progress on the hydrogen economy’s ramp-up continues as expected, green hydrogen will not only be readily available but also cost-effective by 2030.
H2FLY Germany 2. H2FLY Germany A decade of research, engineering, and testing. With H2FLY and our aircraft HY4, we have proven that we can make hydrogen fly. And hydrogen's potential for the future of air mobility is enormous. In the coming years, our powertrain system will be able to provide power to an array of applications, all of which benefit significantly from our high range, zero-emission, and low noise propulsion system.
Luftcar 2025 3. LuftCar 2025 LuftCars eVTOL Hydrogen fuel cell/Li electric powered, can be used during daily commute and for regional travel (city to city) with both road and air travel capability and provide reduced travel time, reduced wait time, personal safety, flexibility, reduced congestion in big metropolis. Luftcar Cargo vehicles to carry hot shot commodities Air inspection and surveys, with drivability into air inaccessible sites and Hospitals can own a fleet with mix of LuftClinics and regular ambulances. Doctors can hop between hospitals and beat congestion.
2H2O(l) ↔ 2H2(g) + O2(g)E0 = -1.229V
Cellula Robotics XLUUV propulsion H2 fuel cell 1. 12 May 2022, Cellula Robotics XLUUV Cellula announces contract with Trusted Autonomous Systems, to develop the next generation of fuel cell powered, Extra-Large Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (XLUUV). Funded by the Royal Australian Navy and in collaboration with sovereign sub-contractors, project SeaWolf is set to debut the first 12m XLUUV hull in the fourth quarter of 2022.
thyssenkrupp air-independent propulsion H2 fuel cell 2. 2022, Thyssenkrupp Marine Systems Submarine Air-Independent Propulsion (AIP) HDW fuel cell system delivers a unique AIP solution for direct integration into non-nuclear submarines. Fuel cells are energy converters that transform chemical energy directly to electrical energy without noise or combustion. In these fuel cells hydrogen and oxygen stored on board combine to produce water while giving off electricity.
US Army H2 Stealth Tank 3. 2022, US Army develops stealthy Hydrogen Fuel Cell Tanks
US NRL Hybrid Tiger UAV 4. 2021, US Navy Research Laboratory develops multi-day endurance Solar Hydrogen Fuel Cell drone.
Hybrid Tiger is a Group 2 UAV (typically 21-55 pounds, operate below 3,500 feet AGL at speeds less than 250 knots), 16 kg, 5.7 m wingspan autonomous air vehicle that is launched from a tether. Hybrid Tiger employs two energy-harvesting techniques:
1. Auto-soaring, autonomously finding and exploiting thermal updrafts to harvest energy from them by rising;
2. Integrated solar, with unique co-cured solar panel integration process employing high-efficiency photovoltaics, enabling nearly “free” flight during daylight.
US Military Academy West Point 5. 2021 - US Modern War Institute - The promise of Hydrogen: An alternative fuel at the intersection of Climate Policy and Lethality. "Hydrogen vehicles and platforms also offer significant advantages in performance, which translates to increased lethality on the battlefield."
US Army H2 FCEV 6. 2019, US Army Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technology and its Military Applications. This article explores and evaluates fuel cell power generation technologies and their support equipment that enable tactical advantages for ground vehicle systems.
US Department of Defense 7. 2018, US Department of Defense - Operational Energy Strategy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Review: Capabilities; Range; Endurance; Payload; Speed; Survivability.
2H2O(l) ↔ 2H2(g) + O2(g)E0 = -1.229V
Emirates Team New Zealand 1. Emirates Team New Zealand have been continuing the successful commissioning and testing of their hydrogen powered foiling chase boat ‘Chase Zero’ on Auckland’s Hauraki Gulf since its launch just five weeks ago. The top speed of Chase Zero to date has been clocked at 50.3 knots (93.16km/h) on its 9th day of testing, which has always been the expectation of the design of the foiling boat.
Yanmar Marine 2. Yanmar developed a maritime hydrogen fuel cell system and conducted verification tests with a test boat by utilizing components of Toyota Motor Corporation's fuel cell vehicle "MIRAI". Engineers in hull design, electrical design, and control design from various departments within the Yanmar Group participated in the development of this test boat. Fuel cells and high-pressure hydrogen tanks were installed according to the requirements of the safety guidelines, fuel cells and a high-pressure hydrogen tanks were installed. At the same time, a power management system that coordinates and controls the operation of the fuel cells, lithium-ion batteries, and motors was also developed.
Genevos Marine 3. Genevos The plug & play marine power solution The Hydrogen Power Module has been specifically designed for vessels to provide a compact, light weight, and low noise solution. The module includes Hydrogenics (Cummins) PEM fuel cell stack; Air filtration and compression; Cooling system with heat exchanger; DC-DC converter; Energy & safety management system; and a User interface & data logger.
THE JET 4. THE JET ZeroEmission is a hydrogen powered boat with iconic design and high-end positioning. A one-of-a-kind boat in the world, both innovative and respectful of the environment: zero emission, zero wave, zero noise, “flying” 80cm above the waters at a speed of 35-40 knots.
ABB Marine 5. ABB’s fuel cell solution is a modular power supply system developed for marine use. The system is based on the hydrogen proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The fuel cell technology is applicable to high and low voltage, as well as AC and DC power systems, and can be used in combination with batteries or engines. The system can be fully hydrogen-electric or integrated as part of a hybrid power system. With the use of renewables to produce the hydrogen, the entire energy chain can be clean.
Zepp Solutions 6. to supply a hydrogen fuel cell system and hydrogen storage solution for the ‘Ab Initio’. The 67 meter-long ship will be used for the practical training of students of maritime courses by the STC-Group. The Ab Initio is expected to enter service 2022.
2H2O(l) ↔ 2H2(g) + O2(g)E0 = -1.229V
Hylium  Industries 1. 2022, Hylium Industries Aerospace and Defence Hylium Industries develops creative technologies on compact hydrogen liquefaction and ultra light hydrogen storage through R&D programs supported by the Korean Government. Hylium Industries' HyliumX is a hydrogen fuel cell powered drone operating on liquefied hydrogen. With a power pack that combines ultra-light liquefied hydrogen fuel tank and PEM fuel cell, the HyliumX has a flight endurance of up to 5 hours.
Plug Power UAV 2. 2022, Plug Power High Specific Energy Means More Time in the Air for a Fuel Cell UAV "Hydrogen fuel cells for aerospace provide high specific energies (Wh/kg) for longer-duration flights and come with the added benefit of fast fueling, allowing customers to maximize the utilization of these assets. Leading in Fuel Cell Solutions for aerospace: Through our 2019 acquisition of Montreal, Canada-based EnergyOr, we’ve become a leader in fuel cells for UAVs, setting several world records for endurance flights through the use of EnergyOr’s innovative and proprietary fuel cell technology."
Haskel 3. 2022, Haskel (Ingersoll Rand) Aerospace and Defence division delivers high-pressure gas and liquid transfer and pressurization solutions to aircraft manufacturers and military bases around the world. Haskel's new Nano refueling station furthers our commitment to developing hydrogen technologies that support more sustainable, flexible, and affordable refuelling.
Linde SKYCORP 4. 2022, Linde Corporation Hydrogen Division and SKYCORP have produced a Hydrogen refillable long range drone This new state-of-the art drone developed by Estonian technology company SKYCORP is able to stay in the air up to three times longer than a regular drone. It also offers dramatically reduced downtime as refueling takes only a few minutes. This next-generation drone is powered by the highest end hydrogen fuel cell technology in the world.
DJ25 5. 2022, Doosan Mobility and 2022, JOUAV won an 2022 CES 2022 Innovation Award with the DJ25. “DJ25 is the world’s first hydrogen fuel cell VTOL (Vertical Take Off and Landing) commercial drone solution.
South Korean Doosan Mobility have established expertise in hydrogen fuel cell drones: China’s JOUAV has partnered with companies around the world to bring their suite of robust VTOL air frames to the skies. The DJ25 is the integration between the advanced PEMFC (Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell) technology to a VTOL air frame.
The DJ25 has a flight time of up to 5 and half hours and able to cover up to 500 km in a single flight, the DJ25 offers an ideal solution for long distance inspections, large scale site surveying, and mapping."
6. 2022, Honeywell "is developing a new technology suite for light drones, including hydrogen fuel cells, that enables them to fly three times longer and with less human intervention."
7. 2022, Intelligent Energy IE-Soar fuel cells "extend flight times to UAVs presently constrained by the limitations of batteries. Flight durations of over three times that provided by batteries have been achieved. This product is currently available to UAV service providers, fleet operators and manufacturers, outdoor power supply."
8. 07 October2021, Jørgen Apeland PhD Fellow, University of Stavanger, Norway PhD Thesis "Fuel Cell Powered Drone: Use of Fuel Cells to Extend Multirotor Drone Endurance". Excerpt: "In this thesis, results from research about the use of fuel cells to extend multirotor drone flight endurance are presented." h
9. 2021, ISS Aerospace "High Endurance Hydrogen Fuel Cell UAVs High Endurance UAVs are always top of the list of demands from our industrial Unmanned Aerial Systems clients. At ISS Aerospace we have worked extensively to create a first-of-its-kind hydrogen fuel cell powered UAV, capable of up to 120 minutes flight time."
10. 17 October 2018, IOP Science: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 421, Issue 4 "Compressed hydrogen storage in contemporary fuel cell propulsion systems of small drones."